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  • Pre-workout


    CaffeinePre-workout, or pre-workout supplement, is a bodybuilding supplement. It contains ingredients that are intended to give a sudden boost of energy. Pre-workout supplements contain ingredients such as, beta alanine, creatine, amino acids, and L-citruline, that aid in muscle recovery after a strenuous workout. This boost is mainly supplied by caffeine. Pre-workout can be beneficial for performing strenuous exercises. However, pre-workout can cause negative side effects as well.

  • Citrullination


    The chemical conversion of arginine to citrulline, known as citrullination or deimination.Citrullination or deimination is the conversion of the amino acid arginine in a protein into the amino acid citrulline. Citrulline is not one of the 20 standard amino acids encoded by DNA in the genetic code. Instead, it is the result of a post-translational modification. Citrullination is distinct from the formation of the free amino acid citrulline as part of the urea cycle or as a byproduct of enzymes of the nitric oxide synthase family. Enzymes called arginine deiminases (ADIs) catalyze the deimination of free arginine, while protein arginine deiminases or peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) replace the primary ketimine group (=NH) by a ketone group (=O). Arginine is positively charged at a neutral pH, whereas citrulline has no net charge. This increases the hydrophobicity of the protein, which can lead to changes in protein folding, affecting the structure and function. The immune system can attack citrullinated proteins, leading to autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS).

  • Citrulline


    The organic compound citrulline is an α-amino acid. Its name is derived from citrullus, the Latin word for watermelon, from which it was first isolated in 1914 by Koga and Odake. It was finally identified by Wada in 1930. It has the formula H2NC(O)NH(CH2)3CH(NH2)CO2H. It is a key intermediate in the urea cycle, the pathway by which mammals excrete ammonia by converting it into urea. Citrulline is also produced as a byproduct of the enzymatic production of nitric oxide from the amino acid arginine, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase.

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