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  • Lumbar spinal stenosis

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    Lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is a medical condition in which the spinal canal narrows and compresses the nerves at the level of the lumbar vertebrae. This is usually due to the common occurrence of spinal degeneration that occurs with aging. It can also sometimes be caused by spinal disc herniation, osteoporosis, a tumor, or trauma. In the cervical (neck) and lumbar (low back) region, it can be a congenital condition to varying degrees. It is also a common symptom for those who suffer from various skeletal dysplasias, such as with pseudoachondroplasia and achondroplasia, at an early age. Spinal stenosis may affect the cervical or thoracic region, in which case it is known as cervical spinal stenosis or thoracic spinal stenosis. In some cases, it may be present in all three places in the same patient. Lumbar spinal stenosis can cause low back pain, abnormal sensations, and the absence of sensation (numbness) in the legs, thighs, feet, or buttocks, or loss of bladder and bowel control.

  • Lumbar puncture

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    Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing. The main reason for a lumbar puncture is to help diagnose diseases of the central nervous system, including the brain and spine. Examples of these conditions include meningitis and subarachnoid hemorrhage. It may also be used therapeutically in some conditions. Increased intracranial pressure (pressure in the skull) is a contraindication, due to risk of brain matter being compressed and pushed toward the spine. Sometimes, lumbar puncture cannot be performed safely (for example due to a severe bleeding tendency). It is regarded as a safe procedure, but post-dural-puncture headache is a common side effect. The procedure is typically performed under local anesthesia using a sterile technique. A hypodermic needle is used to access the subarachnoid space and fluid collected. Fluid may be sent for biochemical, microbiological, and cytological analysis. Lumbar puncture was first introduced in 1891 by the German physician Heinrich Quincke.

  • Lumbar nerves

    serch.it?q=Lumbar-nerves

    The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae. They are divided into posterior and anterior divisions.

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