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  • Chrysler

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    Chrysler (; officially Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) US LLC) is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. It is a subsidiary of Italian-American automobile manufacturer Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, which is registered in the Netherlands and headquartered in London for tax purposes. Previously, the brand's holding company existed as Chrysler Corporation (1925–1998), DaimlerChrysler (1998–2007), Chrysler, LLC (2007–2009), and Chrysler Group, LLC (2009–2014). In addition to the flagship Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge, Jeep, and Ram nameplates. Further, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, and SRT, its performance automobile division. Walter Chrysler founded the original Chrysler Corporation was founded from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company in 1925. Using the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy he had seen working for Buick, he acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, and created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.

  • Takata Corporation

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    was an automotive parts company based in Japan. The company had production facilities on four continents, with its European headquarters located in Germany, where it also had nine production facilities. In 2013, a series of deaths and injuries associated with defective Takata airbag inflators manufactured by their Mexican subsidiary in Coahuila, had led Takata to initially recall 3.6 million cars equipped with such airbags. Further fatalities caused by the airbags have led the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to order an ongoing, nationwide recall of more than 42 million cars, the largest automotive recall in U.S. history. In June 2017, Takata filed for bankruptcy. It was acquired by Key Safety Systems.

  • Diesel emissions scandal

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    Scandals relating to higher than reported emissions from diesel engines began in 2014, when the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) reported discrepancies between European and US models of vehicles. Beginning with the VW scandal, vehicles built by a wide range of car makers were found to emit higher levels of pollution under real world driving conditions. Independent tests carried out by the German car club ADAC proved that, under normal driving conditions, diesel vehicles including the Volvo S60, Renault's Espace Energy and the Jeep Renegade, exceeded legal European emission limits for nitrogen oxide () by more than 10 times. ICCT and ADAC showed the biggest deviations from Volvo, Renault, Jeep, Hyundai, Citroën and Fiat. Researchers have criticized the inadequacy of current regulations and called for the use of a UN-sanctioned test called Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Procedures that better reflects real-life driving conditions. The test is not due to come into force until 2017, with critics saying that car firms have lobbied fiercely to delay its implementation due to the high cost of meeting stricter environmental controls.

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