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  • Coenzyme Q10


    Coenzyme Q10, also known as ubiquinone, ubidecarenone, coenzyme Q, and abbreviated at times to CoQ10 , CoQ, or Q10 is a coenzyme that is ubiquitous in animals and most bacteria (hence the name ubiquinone). It is a 1,4-benzoquinone, where Q refers to the quinone chemical group and 10 refers to the number of isoprenyl chemical subunits in its tail. This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the mitochondria. It is a component of the electron transport chain and participates in aerobic cellular respiration, which generates energy in the form of ATP. Ninety-five percent of the human body's energy is generated this way. Therefore, those organs with the highest energy requirements—such as the heart, liver, and kidney—have the highest CoQ10 concentrations. There are three redox states of CoQ10: fully oxidized (ubiquinone), semiquinone (ubisemiquinone), and fully reduced (ubiquinol).

  • Meclofenoxate


    Meclofenoxate (INN, BAN; brand name Lucidril, also known as centrophenoxine) is a cholinergic nootropic used as a dietary supplement and drug in the treatment of symptoms of senile dementia and Alzheimer's disease. It is an ester of dimethylethanolamine (DMAE) and 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (pCPA). In elderly patients, meclofenoxate has been found clinically to improve memory, have a mentally stimulating effect, and improve general cognition. Meclofenoxate also increases cellular membrane phospholipids. It is sold in Japan and some European countries, such as Germany, Hungary, and Austria, as a prescription drug.

  • Lecithin


    An example of a phosphatidylcholine, a type of phospholipid in lecithin. Red - choline and phosphate group; Black - glycerol; Green - monounsaturated fatty acid; Blue - saturated fatty acidLecithin (, , from the Greek lekithos, "egg yolk") is a generic term to designate any group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues, which are amphiphilic – they attract both water and fatty substances (and so are both hydrophilic and lipophilic), and are used for smoothing food textures, dissolving powders (emulsifying), homogenizing liquid mixtures, and repelling sticking materials. Lecithins are mixtures of glycerophospholipids including phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidic acid. Lecithin was first isolated in 1845 by the French chemist and pharmacist Theodore Gobley. In 1850, he named the phosphatidylcholine lécithine.

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