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  • Cancer survival rates


    Cancer survival rates vary by the type of cancer, stage at diagnosis, treatment given and many other factors, including country. In general survival rates are improving, although more so for some cancers than others. Survival rate can be measured in several ways, median life expectancy having advantages over others in terms of meaning for people involved, rather than as an epidemiological measure. However, survival rates are currently often measured in terms of 5-year survival rates, which is the percentage of people who live at least five years after being diagnosed with cancer, and relative survival rates compare people with cancer to people in the overall population. Several types of cancer are associated with high survival rates, including breast, prostate, testicular and colon cancer. Brain and pancreatic cancers have much lower median survival rates which have not improved as dramatically over the last forty years. Indeed, pancreatic cancer has one of the worst survival rates of all cancers.Small cell lung cancer has a five-year survival rate of 4% according to Cancer Centers of America's Website.

  • Hepatic encephalopathy


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure. Onset may be gradual or sudden. Other symptoms may include movement problems, changes in mood, or changes in personality. In the advanced stages it can result in a coma. Hepatic encephalopathy can occur in those with acute or chronic liver disease. Episodes can be triggered by infections, GI bleeding, constipation, electrolyte problems, or certain medications. The underlying mechanism is believed to involve the buildup of ammonia in the blood, a substance that is normally removed by the liver. The diagnosis is typically made after ruling out other potential causes. It may be supported by blood ammonia levels, an electroencephalogram, or a CT scan of the brain. Hepatic encephalopathy is possibly reversible with treatment. This typically involves supportive care and addressing the triggers of the event. Lactulose is frequently used to decrease ammonia levels. Certain antibiotics and probiotics are other potential options. A liver transplant may improve outcomes in those with severe disease. More than 40% of people with cirrhosis develop hepatic encephalopathy. More than half of those with cirrhosis and significant HE live less than a year. In those who are able to get a liver transplant, the risk of death is less than 30% over the subsequent five years. The condition has been described since at least 1860.

  • List of cancer mortality rates in the United States


    Map of leukemia mortality in black females in the U.S. 1950-94. Different types of cancer can vary wildly in their prognosis. While the stage of cancer at diagnosis is most relevant to the survival of an individual patient, the type of cancer suggests an overall survival rate of the population. The figures below are an overall reflection of mortality rates throughout the U.S. population. For example, those diagnosed with breast or prostate cancer have a much better outcome than those diagnosed with lung or stomach cancer. In most statistical records, cancers are grouped by location, although some cancers of the same location can have extremely variable survival rates depending on the type of cancer. For example, stage 1 pancreatic adenocarcinoma has a 5-year survival rate of 12%, while stage 1 pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors have a 5-year survival rate of 61%. Between 2007 and 2013, the percentage of cancer patients alive within five years after cancer diagnosis are displayed in the table below. These figures represent all deaths, whether due to the cancer itself, or death from another cause in a person with cancer.Note: This is not a complete list of cancer mortality rates as published by the NCI. These figures are at least five years old and do not reflect recent advances in medicine that have improved the detection and treatments of cancer and their outcomes. Again, these are average death rates that should not be assumed to apply to individuals, whose prognoses will vary depending on age, sex, race, general health, swiftness of detection, type of treatment, progression of disease, and complicating factors. Type Survival Rate Oral Cancer 64.5% Lip cancer 90% Hypopharynx cancer 33% Esophageal cancer 19% Stomach cancer 30.6% Small intestine cancer 67.5% Colorectal cancer 64.9% Hepatic and bile duct cancer 17.6% Gallbladder cancer 18.2% Pancreatic cancer (all types) 8.2% Laryngeal cancer 60.7% Lung cancer (all types) 18.1% Mesothelioma 9% Tracheal cancer 52.9% Bone cancer (all types) 67.7% Soft tissue, not otherwise specified 64.4% Skin cancer (excluding basal and squamous) 91.7% Breast cancer 89.7% Breast cancer in situ 100% Uterine cancer 29.8%-82.7% Ovarian cancer 46.5% Cervical cancer 67.1% Prostate cancer 98.6% Testicular cancer 95.1% Bladder cancer 77.3% Renal cancer 74.1% Ocular cancer 82.7% Glioblastoma 4% Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma 0% Myeloma 49.6% Hodgkin's lymphoma 86.4% Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma 71% Thyroid cancer 98.2% Leukemia (Acute lymphocytic) 68.2% Leukemia (Acute myelomonocytic) 24% Leukemia (Chronic lymphocytic) 83.2% Leukemia (Chronic myeloid) 66.9% While breast cancer in situ is not a true cancer (lacking the invasive nature of cancer), physicians often present the diagnosis of cancer to patients. In recent years, this has been controversial, as it artificially inflates the rates of breast cancer.

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