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  • ALT ratio

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  • Comprehensive metabolic panel

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    The comprehensive metabolic panel, or chemical screen, (CMP; CPT code 80053) is a panel of 14 blood tests which serves as an initial broad medical screening tool. The CMP provides a rough check of kidney function, liver function, diabetic and parathyroid status, and electrolyte and fluid balance, but this type of screening has its limitations. Abnormal values from a CMP are often the result of false positives and thus the CMP may need to be repeated (or a more specific test performed), requiring a second blood drawing procedure and possibly additional expense for the patient, even though no disease is present. This test is also known as SMA12+2 test. The CMP is an expanded version of the basic metabolic panel (BMP), which does not include liver tests. A CMP (or BMP) can be ordered as part of a routine physical examination, or may be used to monitor a patient with a chronic disease, such as diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Previous names for the panel of tests have been Chem 12, Chemistry panel, Chemistry screen, SMA 12, SMA 20 and SMAC (Sequential Multiple Analysis - Computer). The tests are performed on machines based on the AutoAnalyzer invented in 1957.

  • Liver function tests

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    Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs), also referred to as a hepatic panel, are groups of blood tests that provide information about the state of a patient's liver. These tests include prothrombin time (PT/INR), aPTT, albumin, bilirubin (direct and indirect), and others. The liver transaminases aspartate transaminase (AST or SGOT) and alanine transaminase (ALT or SGPT) are useful biomarkers of liver injury in a patient with some degree of intact liver function. Most liver diseases cause only mild symptoms initially, but these diseases must be detected early. Hepatic (liver) involvement in some diseases can be of crucial importance. This testing is performed on a patient's blood sample. Some tests are associated with functionality (e.g., albumin), some with cellular integrity (e.g., transaminase), and some with conditions linked to the biliary tract (gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase). Several biochemical tests are useful in the evaluation and management of patients with hepatic dysfunction. These tests can be used to detect the presence of liver disease, distinguish among different types of liver disorders, gauge the extent of known liver damage, and monitor the response to treatment. Some or all of these measurements are also carried out (usually about twice a year for routine cases) on those individuals taking certain medications, such as anticonvulsants, to ensure that the medications are not adversely impacting the person's liver.

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