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  • Low rolling resistance tire

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    Low rolling resistance tires are designed to reduce the energy loss as a tire rolls, decreasing the required rolling effort — and in the case of automotive applications, improving vehicle fuel efficiency. Approximately 5–15% of the fuel consumed by a typical car may be used to overcome rolling resistance. A 2003 California Energy Commission (CEC) preliminary study estimated that adoption of low-rolling resistance tires could save 1.5–4.5% of all gasoline consumption, but that current data were also insufficient to compare safety and other characteristics. A United States National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) study in 2009 found that if 2% of the replacement tires would reduce their rolling resistance by 5%, there would be 7.9 million gallons fuel and 76,000 metric tons of CO2 saved annually. (SAE J1269 and SAE J2452) performed on new tires.

  • Pirelli

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    Pirelli & C. S.p.A. is a multinational company based in Milan, Italy, listed on the Milan Stock Exchange since 1922, with a temporary privatization period by the consortium led by the Chinese state-owned enterprise ChemChina. The company is the 5th largest tyre manufacturer behind Bridgestone, Michelin, Continental and Goodyear, and is focused on the consumer business (tyres for cars, motorcycles and bicycles). It is present in Europe, Apac, Latam, Meai, Nafta and C.I.S., operating commercially in over 160 countries. It has 19 manufacturing sites in 13 countries and a network of around 14,600 distributors and retailers. Pirelli has been sponsoring sport competitions since 1907 and is the exclusive tyre supplier for the FIA Formula One World Championship for 2011–2023 and for the FIM World Superbike Championship. Pirelli's headquarters are located in Milan's Bicocca district. Pirelli is now a pure tyre manufacturing company. In the past it has been involved in fashion and operated in renewable energy and sustainable mobility. On October 4, 2017, Pirelli returned to the Milan stock exchange after focusing its business on pure consumer products (tyre for car, motorcycles, bicycles) and related services, and separating the business of industrial tyre. Pirelli has published its Pirelli Calendar since 1964, which has featured the contribution of famous photographers over the years like Helmut Newton, Steve McCurry, Peter Lindbergh, Richard Avedon, Bruce Weber, Herb Rits and Annie Leibovitz.

  • Plus sizing

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    Plus sizing is the practice of replacing an automotive wheel with one of a larger diameter fitted with a new tire of lower aspect ratio so that the new tire has the same diameter and circumference as the original tire to prevent any changes in speedometer accuracy, torque and traction control, while reducing sidewall flex and (generally) increasing cornerning ability. The number following the "plus" describes the number of inches which is added to the diameter of the rim. For example, plus one sizing means increasing the wheel by one inch – from a 15 inch to a 16 inch, for example. A "plus zero" upgrade means changing to a wider tire size while using the same diameter wheel. Changing to a wider tire requires reducing the aspect ratio (the second number in the sequence of numbers that describes the tire's size). Since the aspect ratio is a percentage which is used to calculate the height of the tire's sidewall, if follows that if a larger number is used for the width, a smaller number must be substituted if the final result is to remain the same—which is the objective of Plus sizing.

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