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  • Sepia (color)


    Sepia is a reddish-brown color, named after the rich brown pigment derived from the ink sac of the common cuttlefish Sepia. The word sepia is the Latinized form of the Greek σηπία, sēpía, cuttlefish. 1. Sepia in culture ------------------- Sepia ink used for writing, drawing and as a colored wash by Leonardo da Vinci 1.1. Ink -------- Sepia ink was commonly used as writing ink in Greco-Roman civilization. It remained in common use as an artist's drawing material until the 19th century. 1.2. Magazines -------------- There was a magazine for African-Americans called Sepia, which existed from 1947 to 1983. 1.3. Music ---------- In the late 1940s and early 1950s, R & B (rhythm and blues) music was called race music or sepia music. 1.4. Painting ------------- Grisaille is a painting technique in which a painting is rendered solely in tones of gray, sepia, or dark green. In the last quarter of the 18th century, Professor Jacob Seydelmann of Dresden developed a process to extract and produce a more concentrated form of sepia for use in watercolors and oil paints. 1.5. Photography ---------------- Sepia tones are used in photography; the hue resembles the effect of aging in old photographs, and of older photographs chemically treated either for visual effect or for archival purposes. Most photo graphics software programs and many digital cameras include a sepia tone option. 1.6. Film --------- Acclaimed Russian director Andrei Tarkovsky used a sepia tone for many scenes in his 1979 film Stalker. The opening and closing segments of The Wizard of Oz, the Kansas parts, were filmed in sepia tones.

  • Urobilin


    Urobilin or urochrome is the chemical primarily responsible for the yellow color of urine. It is a linear tetrapyrrole compound that, along with the related compound urobilinogen, are degradation products of the cyclic tetrapyrrole heme.

  • Cow dung


    Drying cow dung fuel Water buffalo dung drying on the wall of a house, Yuanyang County, Yunnan Mound of cow dung fuel, IndiaCow dung, also known as cow pats, cow pies or cow manure, is the waste product of bovine animal species. These species include domestic cattle ("cows"), bison ("buffalo"), yak, and water buffalo. Cow dung is the undigested residue of plant matter which has passed through the animal's gut. The resultant faecal matter is rich in minerals. Color ranges from greenish to blackish, often darkening soon after exposure to air.

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