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  • Meckel's diverticulum


    A Meckel's diverticulum, a true congenital diverticulum, is a slight bulge in the small intestine present at birth and a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct (also called the vitelline duct or yolk stalk). It is the most common malformation of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in approximately 2% of the population, with males more frequently experiencing symptoms. Meckel's diverticulum was first explained by Fabricius Hildanus in the sixteenth century and later named after Johann Friedrich Meckel, who described the embryological origin of this type of diverticulum in 1809.

  • Intussusception (medical disorder)


    Intussusception is a medical condition in which a part of the intestine folds into the section next to it. It typically involves the small bowel and less commonly the large bowel. Symptoms include abdominal pain which may come and go, vomiting, abdominal bloating, and bloody stool. It often results in a small bowel obstruction. Other complications may include peritonitis or bowel perforation. The cause in children is typically unknown; in adults a lead point is sometimes present. Risk factors in children include certain infections, diseases like cystic fibrosis, and intestinal polyps. Risk factors in adults include endometriosis, bowel adhesions, and intestinal tumors. Diagnosis is often supported by medical imaging. In children, ultrasound is preferred while in adults a CT scan is preferred. Intussusception is an emergency requiring rapid treatment. Treatment in children is typically by an enema with surgery used if this is not successful. Dexamethasone may decrease the risk of another episode. In adults, surgical removal of part of the bowel is more often required. Intussusception occurs more commonly in children than adults. In children, males are more often affected than females. The usual age of occurrence is six to eighteen months old.

  • Zenker's diverticulum


    A Zenker's diverticulum, also pharyngoesophageal diverticulum, also pharyngeal pouch, also hypopharyngeal diverticulum, is a diverticulum of the mucosa of the esophagus, just above the cricopharyngeal muscle (i.e. above the upper sphincter of the esophagus). It is a pseudo diverticulum (not involving all layers of the esophageal wall). It was named in 1877 by German pathologist Friedrich Albert von Zenker.

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