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  • Menopause

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    Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age. In the years before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two.

  • Atrophic vaginitis

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    Atrophic vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina as a result of tissue thinning due to not enough estrogen. Symptoms may include pain with sex, vaginal itchiness or dryness, and an urge to urinate or burning with urination. It generally does not resolve without ongoing treatment. Complications may include urinary tract infections. The lack of estrogen typically occurs following menopause. Other causes may include when breastfeeding or as a result of specific medications. Risk factors include smoking. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms. Treatment is generally with estrogen cream applied to the vagina. Other measures that may help include vaginal lubricants. It is recommended that soaps and other irritants are avoided. About half of postmenopausal women are affected. Many however are not being treated. Women often report reduced enjoyment in sex as well as life generally.

  • Brachioradial pruritus

    serch.it?q=Brachioradial-pruritus

    Brachioradial pruritus (sometimes abbreviated BRP) is an intense itching sensation of the arm usually between the wrist and elbow of either or both arms. The itch can be so intense that sufferers will scratch their own skin to a bleeding condition. The condition is becoming increasingly common, presenting in patients who are usually fair skinned and middle aged and indulge in golf, tennis, outdoor table tennis, sailing, or other leisure outdoor activities in sunny climates. The cause is not known, although there are a few lines of thought on what causes it. No cure has been found. Many different medications and types of topical creams have been experimented with, but none seem to make any difference. The only thing that seems to help most sufferers is the application of ice to the area until the itch is diminished. 1. Causes --------- Brachioradial pruritus (BRP) is a localized pruritus of the dorsolateral aspect of the arm. BRP is an enigmatic condition with a controversial cause; some authors consider BRP to be a photodermatosis, whereas other authors attribute BRP to compression of cervical nerve roots. BRP may be attributed to a neuropathy, such as chronic cervical radiculopathy. The possibility of an underlying neuropathy should be considered in the evaluation and treatment of all patients with BRP. The main cause of BRP is not known, but there is evidence to suggest that BRP may arise in the nervous system also Cervical spine disease may be an important contributing factor. Patients with BRP may have underlying cervical spine pathology. Whether this association is causal or coincidental remains to be determined. There is controversy regarding the cause of brachioradial pruritus: is it caused by a nerve compression in the cervical spine or is it caused by a prolonged exposure to sunlight? In many patients, itching of the arms or shoulders is seasonal. Some patients reported neck pain. BRP can be linked to the thyroid.

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