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  • Grandmother hypothesis

    serch.it?q=Grandmother-hypothesis

    The grandmother hypothesis is a hypothesis to explain the existence of menopause in human life history by identifying the adaptive value of extended kin networking. It builds on the previously postulated "mother hypothesis" which states that as mothers age, the costs of reproducing become greater, and energy devoted to those activities would be better spent helping her offspring in their reproductive efforts. It suggests that by redirecting their energy onto those of their offspring, grandmothers can better ensure the survival of their genes through younger generations. By providing sustenance and support to their kin, grandmothers not only ensure that their genetic interests are met, but they also enhance their social networks which could translate into better immediate resource acquisition. This effect could extend past kin into larger community networks and benefit wider group fitness.

  • Dyspareunia

    serch.it?q=Dyspareunia

    Dyspareunia is painful sexual intercourse due to medical or psychological causes. The pain can primarily be on the external surface of the genitalia, or deeper in the pelvis upon deep pressure against the cervix. It can affect a small portion of the vulva or vagina or be felt all over the surface. Understanding the duration, location, and nature of the pain is important in identifying the causes of the pain. Numerous physical, psychological, and social or relationship causes can contribute to pain during sexual encounters. Commonly, multiple underlying causes contribute to the pain. The pain can be acquired or congenital. Symptoms of dyspareunia may also occur after menopause. Diagnosis is typically by physical examination and medical history. Underlying causes determine treatment. Many women experience relief when physical causes are identified and treated. Even when the pain can be reproduced during a physical examination, doctor and patient must acknowledge the possible role of psychological factors in either causing or maintaining the pain. Globally, dyspareunia has been estimated to affect between 8–21% of women, at some point in their lives.

  • Premature ovarian failure

    serch.it?q=Premature-ovarian-failure

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40. A commonly cited triad for the diagnosis is amenorrhea, hypergonadotropism, and hypoestrogenism. If it has a genetic cause, it may be called gonadal dysgenesis. The term "primary ovarian insufficiency" was first used in 1942 by Fuller Albright who first described the condition. About 5 to 10% of women with primary ovarian insufficiency conceive subsequent to the diagnosis without medical intervention.

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