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  • Refrigerator


    Food in a refrigerator with its door open A side-by-side refrigerator-freezer with an icemaker A refrigerator (colloquially fridge) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is . A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half. The first cooling systems for food involved using ice. Artificial refrigeration began in the mid-1750s, and developed in the early 1800s.

  • Heating element


    Symbol of a heater-coil or heating element Some other symbols used for heater-coils or heating elements A heating element converts electrical energy into heat through the process of resistive or Joule heating. Electric current passing through the element encounters resistance, resulting in heating of the element. Unlike the Peltier effect, this process is independent of the direction of current flow.

  • Recreational vehicle


    Motorhome with slide-out extended floors A recreational vehicle (RV) is a motor vehicle or trailer which includes living quarters designed for accommodation. Types of RVs include motorhomes, campervans, caravans (also known as travel trailers and camper trailers), fifth-wheel trailers, popup campers and truck campers.

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