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  • Binary multiplier

    serch.it?q=Binary-multiplier

    A binary multiplier is an electronic circuit used in digital electronics, such as a computer, to multiply two binary numbers. It is built using binary adders. A variety of computer arithmetic techniques can be used to implement a digital multiplier. Most techniques involve computing a set of partial products, and then summing the partial products together. This process is similar to the method taught to primary schoolchildren for conducting long multiplication on base-10 integers, but has been modified here for application to a base-2 (binary) numeral system.

  • 0.999...

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    The repeating decimal continues with infinitely many nines. In mathematics, 0.999... (also written 0., among other ways), denotes the repeating decimal consisting of infinitely many 9s after the decimal point (and one 0 before it). This repeating decimal represents the smallest number no less than every decimal number in the sequence (0.9, 0.99, 0.999, ...). This number is equal to 1. In other words, "0.999..." and "1" represent the same number. There are many ways of showing this equality, from intuitive arguments to mathematically rigorous proofs. The technique used depends on target audience, background assumptions, historical context, and preferred development of the real numbers, the system within which 0.999... is commonly defined. (In other systems, 0.999... can have the same meaning, a different definition, or be undefined.) More generally, every nonzero terminating decimal has two equal representations (for example, 8.32 and 8.31999...), which is a property of all base representations. The utilitarian preference for the terminating decimal representation contributes to the misconception that it is the only representation. For this and other reasons—such as rigorous proofs relying on non-elementary techniques, properties, or disciplines—some people can find the equality sufficiently counterintuitive that they question or reject it. This has been the subject of several studies in mathematics education.

  • Repeating decimal

    serch.it?q=Repeating-decimal

    A repeating or recurring decimal is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic (repeating its values at regular intervals) and the infinitely repeated portion is not zero. It can be shown that a number is rational if and only if its decimal representation is repeating or terminating (i.e. all except finitely many digits are zero). For example, the decimal representation of becomes periodic just after the decimal point, repeating the single digit "3" forever, i.e. 0.333…. A more complicated example is , whose decimal becomes periodic at the second digit following the decimal point and then repeats the sequence "144" forever, i.e. 5.8144144144…. At present, there is no single universally accepted notation or phrasing for repeating decimals. The infinitely repeated digit sequence is called the repetend or reptend. If the repetend is a zero, this decimal representation is called a terminating decimal rather than a repeating decimal, since the zeros can be omitted and the decimal terminates before these zeros. Every terminating decimal representation can be written as a decimal fraction, a fraction whose divisor is a power of 10 (e.g. ); it may also be written as a ratio of the form (e.g. ). However, every number with a terminating decimal representation also trivially has a second, alternative representation as a repeating decimal whose repetend is the digit 9. This is obtained by decreasing the final non-zero digit by one and appending a repetend of 9. and are two examples of this. (This type of repeating decimal can be obtained by long division if one uses a modified form of the usual division algorithm.) Any number that cannot be expressed as a ratio of two integers is said to be irrational. Their decimal representation neither terminates nor infinitely repeats but extends forever without regular repetition. Examples of such irrational numbers are the square root of 2 and .

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