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  • Native American peoples of Oregon


    The Native American Peoples of Oregon are the indigenous peoples who have inhabited and who still inhabit the area that is now the state of Oregon in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Though the federal government currently recognizes only nine tribes existing within the state boundaries of present-day Oregon, this land has been home to countless native groups and peoples, "Since time immemorial ... since before memories." Many diverse communities and groups have lived in the area, cultivating land, engaging in complex relationships across communities, and creating and maintaining forms of governance consistent with unique values, beliefs, and traditions.

  • Texas–Indian wars


    The Texas–Indian wars were a series of 19th-century conflicts between settlers in Texas and the Southern Plains Indians. These conflicts began when the first wave of European-American settlers moved into Spanish Texas. They continued through Texas's time as part of Mexico, when more Europeans and Anglo-Americans arrived, to the subsequent declaration of independence by the Republic of Texas. The conflicts did not end until thirty years after Texas joined the United States. Although several Indian tribes occupied territory in the area, the preeminent nation was the Comanche, known as the "Lords of the Plains." Their territory, the Comancheria, was the most powerful entity and persistently hostile to the Spanish, the Mexicans, and finally, the Texans. These conflicts lasted from 1820, just before Mexico gained independence from Spain, until 1875, when the last free band of Plains Indians, the Comanches led by Quahadi warrior Quanah Parker, surrendered and moved to the Fort Sill reservation in Oklahoma. The half-century struggle between the Plains tribes and the Texans became particularly intense after the Spanish, and then Mexicans, left power in Texas.

  • Leonard Peltier


    Leonard Peltier (born September 12, 1944) is a Native American activist and an enrolled member of the Turtle Mountain Chippewa, who is also of Lakota and Dakota descent. He is a member of the American Indian Movement (AIM). In 1977, he was convicted and sentenced to two consecutive terms of life imprisonment for first-degree murder in the shooting of two Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agents during a 1975 conflict on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. Peltier's indictment and conviction have been the subject of much controversy; Amnesty International placed his case under the "Unfair Trials" category of its Annual Report: USA 2010. Peltier is incarcerated at the United States Penitentiary, Coleman in Florida. Peltier became eligible for parole in 1993; his next scheduled parole hearing will be in July 2024, when Peltier will be 79. On January 18, 2017, the Office of the Pardon Attorney announced that President Barack Obama had denied Peltier's application for clemency. Peltier can apply again for commutation in 2018. Barring appeals, parole, or presidential clemency, Peltier will remain in prison for the rest of his life.

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