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  • Bronchoconstriction


    Illustration depicting bronchoconstriction (Asthma)Bronchoconstriction is the constriction of the airways in the lungs due to the tightening of surrounding smooth muscle, with consequent coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

  • Trepopnea


    Trepopnea /tre·pop·nea/ (tre″pop-ne´ah) is dyspnea (shortness of breath) that is sensed while lying on one side but not on the other (lateral recumbent position). It results from disease of one lung, one major bronchus, or chronic congestive heart failure. Patients with trepopnea from lung disease prefer to lie on the opposite side of the diseased lung, as the gravitation increases perfusion of the lower lung. Increased perfusion in diseased lung would increase shunting and hypoxemia, resulting in worsening shortness of breath. To maximize function of the healthier lung, the patient is best to lie on the side of the healthier lung, so that it receives adequate perfusion. Patients with chronic heart failure prefer to lie mostly on the right side, to enable a better blood return, whereby cardiac output is augmented.

  • Laryngospasm


    Laryngospasm is an uncontrolled/involuntary muscular contraction (spasm) of the vocal folds. The condition typically lasts less than 60 seconds, but in some cases can last 20–30 minutes and causes a partial blocking of breathing in, while breathing out remains easier. It may be triggered when the vocal chords or the area of the trachea below the vocal folds detects the entry of water, mucus, blood, or other substance. It is characterized by stridor and/or retractions. Some people suffer from frequent laryngospasms, whether awake or asleep. In an ear, nose, and throat practice, it is typically seen in people who have silent reflux disease. It is also a well known, infrequent, but serious perioperative complication. It is likely that more than 10% of drownings involve laryngospasm, but the evidence suggests that it is not usually effective at preventing water from entering the trachea.

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