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  • Blood test

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    Modern hospital hematology laboratory A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick. Multiple tests for specific blood components, such as a glucose test or a cholesterol test, are often grouped together into one test panel called a blood panel or blood work. Blood tests are often used in health care to determine physiological and biochemical states, such as disease, mineral content, pharmaceutical drug effectiveness, and organ function. Typical clinical blood panels include a basic metabolic panel or a complete blood count. Blood tests are also used in drug tests to detect drug abuse. In some of the United States, a blood test is required before marriage.

  • Iron supplement

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    Iron supplements, also known as iron salts and iron pills, are a number of iron formulations used to treat and prevent iron deficiency including iron deficiency anemia. For prevention they are only recommended in those with poor absorption, heavy menstrual periods, pregnancy, hemodialysis, or a diet low in iron. Prevention may also be used in low birth weight babies. They are taken by mouth, injection into a vein, or injection into a muscle. While benefits may be seen in days up to two months may be required until iron levels return to normal. Common side effects include constipation, abdominal pain, dark stools, and diarrhea. Other side effects, which may occur with excessive use, include iron overload and iron toxicity. Ferrous salts used as supplements by mouth include ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, ferrous succinate, and ferrous sulfate. Injectable forms include iron dextran and iron sucrose. They work by providing the iron needed for making red blood cells. Iron pills have been used medically since at least 1681, with an easy-to-use formulation being created in 1832. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Ferrous salts are available as a generic medication and over the counter. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.05–0.63 per month. In the United States a typical month of treatment costs less than $25. Slow release formulations, while available, are not recommended.

  • Complete blood count

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    A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each blood cell type and the concentrations of hemoglobin. A scientist or lab technician performs the requested testing and provides the requesting medical professional with the results of the CBC. Blood counts of various types have been used for clinical purposes since the nineteenth century. Automated equipment to carry out complete blood counts was developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Most blood counts today include a CBC count (i.e.: complete blood count) and leukocyte differential count (LDC) that gives the percentage of each WBC type, such as neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes). The cells that circulate in the bloodstream are generally divided into three types: white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes).

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