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  • Nasal septum perforation

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    A nasal septum perforation is a medical condition in which the nasal septum, the cartilaginous membrane dividing the nostrils, develops a hole or fissure. This may be brought on directly, as in the case of nasal piercings, or indirectly, as by long-term topical drug application, including intranasal ethylphenidate, methamphetamine, cocaine, crushed prescription pills, or decongestant nasal sprays, chronic epistaxis, excessive nose picking and as a complication of nasal surgery like septoplasty or rhinoplasty. Much less common causes for perforated nasal septums include rare granulomatous inflammatory conditions like granulomatosis with polyangiitis. It has been reported as a side effect of anti-angiogenesis drugs like bevacizumab.

  • Health facility

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    Hartford Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut. A hospital is one common type of health facility. An eye, ear, nose, and throat clinic in Durham, North Carolina, illustrating a common smaller facility. A health facility is, in general, any location where healthcare is provided. Health facilities range from small clinics and doctor's offices to urgent care centers and large hospitals with elaborate emergency rooms and trauma centers. The number and quality of health facilities in a country or region is one common measure of that area's prosperity and quality of life. In many countries, health facilities are regulated to some extent by law; licensing by a regulatory agency is often required before a facility may open for business. Health facilities may be owned and operated by for-profit businesses, non-profit organizations, governments, and in some cases by individuals, with proportions varying by country. See also the recent review paper, which provides a comprehensive classification of health facilities from the location analysis perspective.

  • Hypernasal speech

    serch.it?q=Hypernasal-speech

    Hypernasal speech (also hyperrhinolalia or open nasality; medically known as Rhinolalia aperta from greek rhinolalia: "nasal speech" and aperta: "open") is a disorder that causes abnormal resonance in a human's voice due to increased airflow through the nose during speech. It is caused by an open nasal cavity resulting from an incomplete closure of the soft palate and/or velopharyngeal sphincter. In normal speech, nasality is referred to as nasalization and is a linguistic category that can apply to vowels or consonants in a specific language. The primary underlying physical variable determining the degree of nasality in normal speech is the opening and closing of a velopharyngeal passageway between the oral vocal tract and the nasal vocal tract. In the normal vocal tract anatomy, this opening is controlled by lowering and raising the velum or soft palate, to open or close, respectively, the velopharyngeal passageway.

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