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  • Kerosene lamp

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    Swiss flat-wick kerosene lamp. The knob protruding to the right adjusts the wick, and hence the flame size. A kerosene lamp (also known as a paraffin lamp in some countries) is a type of lighting device that uses kerosene (paraffin) as a fuel. Invented by the Polish pharmacist Ignacy Łukasiewicz in 1853, kerosene lamps have a wick or mantle as light source, protected by a glass chimney or globe; lamps may be used on a table, or hand-held lanterns may be used for portable lighting. Like oil lamps, they are useful for lighting without electricity, such as in regions without rural electrification, in electrified areas during power outages, at campsites, and on boats. There are three types of kerosene lamp: flat-wick, central-draught (tubular round wick), and mantle lamp. Kerosene lanterns meant for portable use have a flat wick and are made in dead-flame, hot-blast, and cold-blast variants. Pressurized kerosene lamps have a gas generator and gas mantle; these are known as Petromax, Tilley lamps, or Coleman lamps, among other manufacturers. They produce more light per unit of fuel than wick-type lamps, but are more complex and expensive in construction and more complex to operate.

  • Oil lamp

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    Group of ancient lamps (Hellenistic and Roman) Simple contemporary Indian clay oil lamp during Diwali Antique bronze oil lamp with the "Chi Rho", a Christian symbol (replica) Sukunda oil lamp of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal Oil lamp of Korea Modern Oil lamp of Germany with flat wick An oil lamp is an object used to produce light continuously for a period of time using an oil-based fuel source. The use of oil lamps began thousands of years ago and continues to this day, although not commonly anymore. Oil lamps are a form of lighting, and were used as an alternative to candles before the use of electric lights. Starting in 1780, the Argand lamp quickly replaced other oil lamps still in their basic ancient form. These in turn were replaced by the kerosene lamp in about 1850. In small towns and rural areas the latter continued in use well into the 20th century, until such areas were finally electrified and light bulbs could be used. Sources of fuel for oil lamps include a wide variety of plants such as nuts (walnuts, almonds) and seeds (sesame, olive, castor, flax). Also widely used were animal fats (butter, fish oil, shark liver, whale blubber, seals).

  • Argand lamp

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    An Argand lamp in use Argand lamp with circular wick and glass chimney. Illustration from Les Merveilles de la science (1867–1869) by Louis Figuier. The Argand lamp, a kind of oil lamp, was invented and patented in 1780 by Aimé Argand. Its output is 6 to 10 candelas, brighter than that of earlier lamps. Its more complete combustion of the candle wick and oil than in other lamps required much less frequent trimming of the wick. In France, the lamp is called "Quinquet", after Antoine-Arnoult Quinquet, a pharmacist in Paris, who used the idea originated by Argand and popularized it in France. Quinquet sometimes is credited with the addition of the glass chimney to the lamp.

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