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  • Implantable loop recorder


    An implantable loop recorder (ILR), also known as an insertable cardiac monitor, is a small device about the size of a pack of chewing gum or USB memory stick that is implanted just under the skin of the chest for cardiac monitoring (that is, to record the heart's electrical activity).

  • EndoStim Electrical Stimulation Therapy


    EndoStim Electrical Stimulation Therapy is a form of anti-reflux surgery, intended to assist in correcting a problem with the muscles at the bottom of the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). Problems with these muscles allow gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) to happen. The procedure was developed by Endostim, based in St. Louis, Missouri, and Amsterdam, Netherlands.

  • Pacemaker failure


    Pacemaker failure is the inability of an implanted artificial pacemaker to perform its intended function of regulating the beating of the heart. A pacemaker uses electrical impulses delivered by electrodes in order to contract the heart muscles. Failure of a pacemaker is defined by the requirement of repeat surgical pacemaker-related procedures after the initial implantation. Most implanted pacemakers are dual chambered and have two leads, causing the implantation time to take longer because of this more complicated pacemaker system. These factors can contribute to an increased rate of complications which can lead to pacemaker failure. Approximately 2.25 million pacemakers were implanted in the United States between 1990 and 2002, and of those pacemakers, about 8,834 were removed from patients because of device malfunction most commonly connected to generator abnormalities. In the 1970s, results of an Oregon study indicated that 10% of implanted pacemakers failed within the first month. Another study found that more than half of pacemaker complications occurred during the first 3 months after implantation.

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