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  • Parvovirus


    Parvovirus is the common name applied to all the viruses in the Parvoviridae taxonomic family, although it can also be used specifically for members of one of the two Parvoviridae subfamilies, the Parvovirinae, which infect vertebrate hosts. Members of the second subfamily, the Densovirinae, which infect invertebrate hosts, are more commonly referred to as densoviruses. In subfamily Parvovirinae there are eight genera, containing a total of 58 recognized species, while in subfamily Densovirinae there are 5 genera and a total of 21 species. These viruses have small genomes, encoding just two genes, and must rely on the synthetic machinery of their host cell for their own preferential replication. This means that many parvoviruses require host cells to enter S-phase before viral DNA replication can initiate, but they do not encode any gene products that can drive this transition. Parvoviruses overcome this problem in various ways: viruses in many genera simply wait within the cell for it to enter S-phase under its own cell cycle control, which means that they can only infect actively-dividing cell populations.

  • Parvovirus B19


    Primate erythroparvovirus 1, generally referred to as B19 virus, parvovirus B19 or sometimes erythrovirus B19, was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human virus in the family Parvoviridae, genus Erythroparvovirus; it measures only 23–26 nm in diameter. The name is derived from Latin, parvum meaning small, reflecting the fact that B19 ranks among the smallest DNA viruses. B19 virus is most known for causing disease in the pediatric population; however, it can also affect adults. It is the classic cause of the childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum, or "slapped cheek syndrome". The virus was discovered by chance in 1975 by Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart. It gained its name because it was discovered in well B19 of a large series of microtiter plates.

  • Canine parvovirus


    Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2, colloquially parvo) is a contagious virus mainly affecting dogs, and thought to originate in cats. The current consensus is that the feline panleukopenia virus mutated into CPV2. Parvo is highly contagious and is spread from dog to dog by direct or indirect contact with their feces. Vaccines can prevent this infection, but mortality can reach 91% in untreated cases. Treatment often involves veterinary hospitalization. Canine parvovirus may infect other mammals including foxes, wolves, cats, and skunks; however, it will not infect humans.

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