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  • Erythema migrans


    Erythema migrans (New Latin, literally, "migrating redness") refers to a rash often seen in the early stage of Lyme disease, and can also (but less commonly) be caused by southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI). It can appear anywhere from one day to one month after a tick bite. This rash does not represent an allergic reaction to the bite, but rather an actual skin infection of one of the Lyme bacteria species from the genus Borrelia.

  • Phytophotodermatitis


    Phytophotodermatitis, also known as Berloque dermatitis or margarita photodermatitis, is a cutaneous phototoxic inflammatory reaction resulting from contact with a light-sensitizing botanical agent followed by exposure to ultraviolet light (from the sun, for instance). Symptoms include erythema, edema, blisters (vesicles and/or bullae), and delayed hyperpigmentation. Heat and moisture tend to exacerbate the reaction. A reaction may be elicited in any person who has been exposed to adequate amounts of both a photosensitizing agent and ultraviolet light. Phytophotodermatitis is not an immunologic response; no prior exposure to the photosensitizing agent is required. The photosensitizing substances found in phototoxic plants belong to a class of chemical compounds called the furanocoumarins, which are activated by long-wavelength ultraviolet (UVA) light. The most toxic of these organic compounds are the linear furanocoumarins, so called since they exhibit a linear chemical structure. Bergapten and xanthotoxin (also known as methoxsalen), two linear furanocoumarins derived from psoralen, are invariably found in plants associated with phytophotodermatitis.

  • Dermatitis herpetiformis


    Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a chronic blistering skin condition, characterised by blisters filled with a watery fluid. Despite its name, DH is neither related to nor caused by herpes virus: the name means that it is a skin inflammation having an appearance similar to herpes. Dermatitis herpetiformis was first described by Louis Adolphus Duhring in 1884. A connection between DH and celiac disease was recognised in 1967, although the exact causal mechanism is not known. DH is a specific manifestation of coeliac disease. The age of onset is usually about 15–40, but DH also may affect children and the elderly. Men and women are affected equally. Estimates of DH prevalence vary from 1 in 400 to 1 in 10,000. It is most common in patients of northern European/northern Indian ancestry, and is associated with the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotype HLA-DQ2 along with coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity.

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