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  • Reactive arthritis

    serch.it?q=Reactive-arthritis

    Reactive arthritis, formerly known as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of inflammatory arthritis that develops in response to an infection in another part of the body (cross-reactivity). Coming into contact with bacteria and developing an infection can trigger the disease. By the time the patient presents with symptoms, often the "trigger" infection has been cured or is in remission in chronic cases, thus making determination of the initial cause difficult. The arthritis often is coupled with other characteristic symptoms; this was previously referred to as Reiter's syndrome, Reiter's disease or Reiter's arthritis. The term "reactive arthritis" is preferred and increasingly used as a substitute for this designation due to Hans Conrad Julius Reiter's war crimes with the Nazi Party. The manifestations of reactive arthritis include the following triad of symptoms: an inflammatory arthritis of large joints, inflammation of the eyes in the form of conjunctivitis or uveitis, and urethritis in men or cervicitis in women. Arthritis occurring alone following sexual exposure or enteric infection is also known as reactive arthritis.

  • Genital ulcer

    serch.it?q=Genital-ulcer

    A genital ulcer is located on the genital area, usually caused by sexually transmitted diseases such as genital herpes, syphilis or chancroid. Some other signs of having genital ulcers include enlarged lymph nodes in the groin area, or vesicular lesions, which are small, elevated sores or blisters. The syndrome may be further classified into penile ulceration and vulval ulceration for males and females respectively. Genital ulcers are not strictly a sign of an STD. They can occur in patients with Behcet's syndrome, lupus, and some forms of rheumatoid arthritis (all non-communicable diseases). Genital tuberculosis, often caused by direct genital contact with infected sputum, can also present as genital ulcer.

  • Kaposi's sarcoma

    serch.it?q=Kaposi's-sarcoma

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skin, lymph nodes, or other organs. The skin lesions are usually purple in color. They can occur singularly, in a limited area, or be widespread. It may worsen either gradually or quickly. Lesions may be flat or raised. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is found in the lesions of all those who are affected. Risk factors include poor immune function, either as a result of disease or specific medications, and chronic lymphedema. Four sub-types are described: classic, endemic, immunosuppresion therapy-related, and epidemic. Classic KS tends to affect older men, be slow growing, and affect the legs. Endemic KS occurs in young adult males in Africa and can be more aggressive. Immunosuppression therapy-related KS generally occurs in people following organ transplantation and mostly affects the skin. Epidemic KS occurs in people with AIDS and many parts of the body can be affected. The diagnosis is by tissue biopsy while the extent of disease may be determined by medical imaging. Treatment is based on the sub-type, whether the condition is localized or widespread, and the person's immune function. Localized skin lesions may be treated by surgery, injections of chemotherapy into the lesion, or radiation therapy. Widespread disease may be treated with chemotherapy or biologic therapy. In those with HIV/AIDS highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) prevents and often treats KS. In certain cases the addition of chemotherapy may be required. With widespread disease, death may occur. The condition is relatively common in people with HIV/AIDS and following organ transplant as of 2017. Over 35% of people with AIDS may be affected. It was first described by Moritz Kaposi in 1872. It became more widely known as one of the AIDS-defining illnesses in the 1980s. The viral association for this cancer was discovered in 1994.

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