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What is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease? Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the most common inherited neurological disorders, affecting approximately 1 in 2,500 people in the United States. The disease is named for the three physicians who first identified it in 1886 - Jean-Martin Charcot and ...
Partly because there are different types of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the exact symptoms vary greatly from person to person. This section presents a general picture of CMT signs and symptoms.
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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease Definition. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the name of a group of inherited disorders of the nerves in the peripheral nervous system.These are the nerves throughout the body that communicate motor and sensory information to and from the spinal cord.
Oct 19, 2012 - Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease, a disease that causes degeneration of the nerves which leads to muscle deterioration. It begins in the arms and legs, but eventually effects the whole body.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is an inherited peripheral nerve disorder. The peripheral nerves are located on the surface of the brain and the spinal cord. These nerves connect the central ...
Jean-Martin Charcot (; 29 November 1825 – 16 August 1893) was a French neurologist and professor of anatomical pathology. He is best known today for his work on hypnosis and hysteria, in particular his work with his hysteria patient Louise Augustine Gleizes. Also known as "the founder of modern neurology", his name has been associated with at least 15 medical eponyms, including Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease and Charcot disease. Charcot has been referred to as "the father of French neurology and one of the world's pioneers of neurology". His work greatly influenced the developing fields of neurology and psychology; modern psychiatry owes much to the work of Charcot and his direct followers. He was the "foremost neurologist of late nineteenth-century France" and has been called "the Napoleon of the neuroses".
Schwann cells (named after physiologist Theodor Schwann) or neurolemmocytes are the principal glia of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Glial cells function to support neurons and in the PNS, also include satellite cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, enteric glia and glia that reside at sensory nerve endings, such as the Pacinian corpuscle. The two types of Schwann cells are myelinating and nonmyelinating. Myelinating Schwann cells wrap around axons of motor and sensory neurons to form the myelin sheath. The Schwann cell promoter is present in the downstream region of the human dystrophin gene that gives shortened transcript that are again synthesized in a tissue-specific manner. During the development of the PNS, the regulatory mechanisms of myelination are controlled by feedforward interaction of specific genes, influencing transcriptional cascades and shaping the morphology of the myelinated nerve fibers.
Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease (CMT) is one of the hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, a group of varied inherited disorders of the peripheral nervous system characterized by progressive loss of muscle tissue and touch sensation across various parts of the body. Currently incurable, this disease is the most commonly inherited neurological disorder, and affects about one in 2,500 people. CMT was previously classified as a subtype of muscular dystrophy.