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  • Chronic cough


    Chronic cough is long-term coughing, sometimes defined as more than several weeks or months. The term can be used to describe the different causes related to coughing, the 3 main ones being; upper airway cough syndrome, asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It occurs in the upper airway of the respiratory system. Generally, a cough lasts around 1–2 weeks, however, chronic cough can persist for an extended period of time defined as 6 weeks or longer. People with chronic cough often experience more than one cause present. Due to the nature of the syndrome the treatments that are used are similar however there is a subsequent number of treatments available.

  • Nasal polyp


    Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses. Symptoms include trouble breathing through the nose, loss of smell, decreased taste, post nasal drip, and a runny nose. The growths are sac-like, movable, and nontender, though face pain may occasionally occur. They typically occur in both nostrils in those who are affected. Complications may include sinusitis and broadening of the nose. The exact cause is unclear. They may be related to chronic inflammation of the lining of the sinuses. They occur more commonly among people who have allergies, cystic fibrosis, aspirin sensitivity, or certain infections. The polyp itself represents an overgrowth of the mucous membranes. Diagnosis may occur by looking up the nose. A CT scan may be used to determine the number of polyps and help plan surgery. Treatment is typically with steroids, often in the form of a nasal spray. If this is not effective surgery may be considered. The condition often recurs following surgery; thus, continued use of a steroid nasal spray is often recommended. Antihistamines may help with symptoms but do not change the underlying disease. Antibiotics are not required for treatment unless an infection occurs. About 4% of people currently have nasal polyps while up to 40% of people develop them at some point in their life. They most often occur after the age of 20 and are more frequent in males than females. Nasal polyps have been described since the time of the Ancient Egyptians.

  • Post-nasal drip


    Post-nasal drip (PND, also termed upper airway cough syndrome, UACS, or post nasal drip syndrome, PNDS) occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa. The excess mucus accumulates in the back of the nose and eventually the throat once it drips down the back of the throat. It is caused by rhinitis, sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), or by a disorder of swallowing (such as an esophageal motility disorder). But also further sources such as an allergy, cold or flu and as a result of medications. However, researchers argue that the flow of mucus down the back of the throat from the nasal cavity is a normal physiologic process that occurs in all healthy individuals. Post-nasal drip has been challenged as a syndrome and instead is widely viewed as a symptom by various researchers as a result of the wide variation amongst differing societies. Furthermore this rebuttal is reinforced due to the lack of an accepted definition, pathologic tissue changes, and available biochemical tests.

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