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  • ATA 100

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    ATA 100 contains the reference to the ATA numbering system which is a common referencing standard for commercial aircraft documentation. This commonality permits greater ease of learning and understanding for pilots, aircraft maintenance technicians, and engineers alike. The standard numbering system was published by the Air Transport Association on June 1, 1956. While the ATA 100 numbering system has been superseded, it continued to be widely used until it went out of date back in 2015, especially in documentation for general aviation aircraft, on aircraft Fault Messages (for Post Flight Troubleshooting and Repair) and the electronic and printed manuals. The Joint Aircraft System/Component (JASC) Code Tables was a modified version of the Air Transport Association of America (ATA), Specification 100 code. It was developed by the FAA's, Regulatory Support Division (AFS-600). This code table was constructed by using the new JASC code four digit format, along with an abbreviated code title. The abbreviated titles have been modified in some cases to clarify the intended use of the accompanying code. The final version of the JASC/ATA 100 code was released by the FAA in 1999.

  • Centrifugal pump

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    Warman centrifugal pump in a 300pxCentrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery. Centrifugal pumps are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber (casing), from where it exits. Common uses include water, sewage, agriculture, petroleum and petrochemical pumping. Centrifugal pumps are often chosen for their high flow rate capabilities, abrasive solution compatibility, mixing potential, as well as their relatively simple engineering. A centrifugal fan is commonly used to implement a vacuum cleaner. The reverse function of the centrifugal pump is a water turbine converting potential energy of water pressure into mechanical rotational energy.

  • Hand pump

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    Cross section and details of a pitcher pump Animation of a suction hand pump. On the up stroke of the piston the foot valve opens and suction brings water into the pump head. On the following down stroke of the piston the valve on the piston opens up and allows water to flow above the piston. On the successive up stroke of the piston water is pushed out of the outlet. A rural handpump in Belgium. Hand-powered force pump, with an air chamber to smooth out variations in flow rateHand pumps are manually operated pumps; they use human power and mechanical advantage to move fluids or air from one place to another. They are widely used in every country in the world for a variety of industrial, marine, irrigation and leisure activities. There are many different types of hand pump available, mainly operating on a piston, diaphragm or rotary vane principle with a check valve on the entry and exit ports to the chamber operating in opposing directions. Most hand pumps are either piston pumps or plunger pumps, and are positive displacement. Hand pumps are commonly used in developing countries for both community supply and self-supply of water and can be installed on boreholes or hand-dug wells.

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