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  • Pericardiocentesis


    In medicine, pericardiocentesis (PCC) is a procedure where fluid is aspirated from the pericardium (the sac enveloping the heart).

  • Serum-ascites albumin gradient


    The serum-ascites albumin gradient or gap (SAAG) is a calculation used in medicine to help determine the cause of ascites. The SAAG may be a better discriminant than the older method of classifying ascites fluid as a transudate versus exudate. The formula is as follows: SAAG = (serum albumin) − (albumin level of ascitic fluid).Ideally, the two values should be measured at the same time. This phenomenon is the result of Starling's forces between the fluid of the circulatory system and ascitic fluid. Under normal circumstances the SAAG is < 1.1 because serum oncotic pressure (pulling fluid back into circulation) is exactly counterbalanced by the serum hydrostatic pressure (which pushes fluid out of the circulatory system). This balance is disturbed in certain diseases (such as the Budd–Chiari syndrome, heart failure, or liver cirrhosis) that increase the hydrostatic pressure in the circulatory system. The increase in hydrostatic pressure causes more fluid to leave the circulation into the peritoneal space (ascites). The SAAG subsequently increases because there is more free fluid leaving the circulation, concentrating the serum albumin. The albumin does not move across membrane spaces easily because it is a large molecule. A rare cause of ascites, with elevated SAAG, and without change in hydrostatic/osmotic pressure is urinary bladder rupture with leakage of urine into the peritoneal space.

  • Paracentesis


    Paracentesis (from Greek κεντάω, "to pierce") is a form of body fluid sampling procedure, generally referring to peritoneocentesis (also called laparocentesis or abdominal paracentesis) in which the peritoneal cavity is punctured by a needle to sample peritoneal fluid. The procedure is used to remove fluid from the peritoneal cavity, particularly if this cannot be achieved with medication. The most common indication is ascites that has developed in people with cirrhosis.

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