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  • Seroma

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    A seroma is a pocket of clear serous fluid that sometimes develops in the body after surgery. This fluid is composed of blood plasma that has seeped out of ruptured small blood vessels and inflammatory fluid produced by the injured and dying cells. Seromas are different from hematomas, which contain red blood cells, and different from abscesses, which contain pus and result from an infection. Serous fluid is also different from lymph. Early or improper removal of sutures can sometimes lead to formation of seroma or discharge of serous fluid from operative areas. Seromas can also sometimes be caused by injury, such as when the initial swelling from a blow or fall does not fully subside. The remaining serous fluid causes a seroma that the body usually absorbs gradually over time (often taking many days or weeks); however, a knot of calcified tissue sometimes remains. Seromas are particularly common after breast surgery (for example after mastectomy), abdominal surgeries, and reconstructive surgery. They are a treatment target in partial-breast radiation therapy, The larger the surgical intervention, the more likely it is that seromas appear.

  • Cremaster muscle

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    The cremaster muscle is a muscle that covers the testis and the spermatic cord.

  • Nerve compression syndrome

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    Nerve compression syndrome or compression neuropathy, also known as entrapment neuropathy, is a medical condition caused by direct pressure on a nerve. It is known colloquially as a trapped nerve, though this may also refer to nerve root compression (by a herniated disc, for example). Its symptoms include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness. The symptoms affect just one particular part of the body, depending on which nerve is affected. Nerve conduction studies help to confirm the diagnosis. In some cases, surgery may help to relieve the pressure on the nerve but this does not always relieve all the symptoms. Nerve injury by a single episode of physical trauma is in one sense a compression neuropathy but is not usually included under this heading.

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