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  • Undifferentiated connective tissue disease


    Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) is a disease in which the body mistakenly attacks its own tissues. It is diagnosed when there is evidence of an existing autoimmune condition which does not meet the criteria for any specific autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus or scleroderma. Latent lupus and incomplete lupus are alternative terms that have been used to describe this condition. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with mixed connective tissue disease, an overlap syndrome. However, MCTD is thought by some researchers to be a clinically distinct entity and is strongly associated with the presence of high titers of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) antibodies. It is estimated that up to 25 percent of people with systemic autoimmune disease could be considered to have UCTD.

  • Telangiectasia


    Telangiectasias, also known as spider veins, are small dilated blood vessels near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes, measuring between 0.5 and 1 millimeter in diameter. These dilated blood vessels can develop anywhere on the body but are commonly seen on the face around the nose, cheeks, and chin. Dilated blood vessels can also develop on the legs, although when they occur on the legs, they often have underlying venous reflux or "hidden varicose veins" (see "Venous reflux" below). When found on the legs, they are found specifically on the upper thigh, below the knee joint, and around the ankles. Many patients who suffer with spider veins seek the assistance of physicians who specialize in vein care or peripheral vascular disease. These physicians are called vascular surgeons or phlebologists. More recently, interventional radiologists have started treating venous problems. Some telangiectasias are due to developmental abnormalities that can closely mimic the behaviour of benign vascular neoplasms. They may be composed of abnormal aggregations of arterioles, capillaries, or venules. Because telangiectasias are vascular lesions, they blanch when tested with diascopy. Telangiectasiasyndrome|CREST variant of scleroderma, also known today as limited scleroderma (CREST is an acronym that stands for calcinosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia).

  • Idiopathic hypersomnia


    Idiopathic hypersomnia is a neurological disorder which is characterized primarily by excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). It has historically been rarely diagnosed and is often very difficult to diagnose at an early stage; it is usually a lifelong chronic disease, which is often debilitating. There is a very low level of public awareness of idiopathic hypersomnia, which often leads to stigma for those who suffer from it. There is currently no cure, but there are several off-label treatments, which are primarily FDA-approved narcolepsy medications. Research funding for its study is scarce. In the medical literature, idiopathic hypersomnia may also be referred to as IH, IHS, primary hypersomnia, central hypersomnia, or hypersomnia of brain origin. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) defines idiopathic hypersomnia as EDS without narcolepsy or the associated features of other sleep disorders.

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