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  • Dysesthesia


    Dysesthesia (or dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys," meaning "not-normal," and "aesthesis," which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles. Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs. It is sometimes described as feeling like acid under the skin. Burning dysesthesia might accurately reflect an acidotic state in the synapses and perineural space. Some ion channels will open to a low pH, and the acid sensing ion channel has been shown to open at body temperature, in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of dysesthesia. People with dysesthesia can become incapacitated with pain, despite no apparent damage to the skin or other tissue. Dysesthesia patients also often have psychological disorders.

  • Immersion foot syndromes


    Immersion foot syndromes are a class of foot injury caused by water absorption in the outer layer of skin. There are different subclass names for this condition based on the temperature of the water to which the foot is exposed. These include trench foot, tropical immersion foot, and warm water immersion foot. In one 3-day military study, it was found that submersion in water allowing for a higher skin temperature resulted in worse skin maceration and pain.

  • Burning feet syndrome


    Burning feet syndrome, also known as Grierson-Gopalan syndrome, is a medical condition that causes severe burning and aching of the feet, hyperesthesia, and vasomotor changes of the feet that lead to excessive sweating. It can even affect the eyes, causing scotoma and amblyopia. The condition occurs more frequently in women, and usually manifests itself when a person is between twenty and forty years old.

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