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  • Meniscus (anatomy)


    A meniscus is a crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that, in contrast to an articular disk, only partly divides a joint cavity. In humans they are present in the knee, wrist, acromioclavicular, sternoclavicular, and temporomandibular joints; in other animals they may be present in other joints. Generally, the term 'meniscus' is used to refer to the cartilage of the knee, either to the lateral or medial meniscus. Both are cartilaginous tissues that provide structural integrity to the knee when it undergoes tension and torsion. The menisci are also known as "semi-lunar" cartilages, referring to their half-moon, crescent shape. The term meniscus is .

  • Seroma


    A seroma is a pocket of clear serous fluid that sometimes develops in the body after surgery. This fluid is composed of blood plasma that has seeped out of ruptured small blood vessels and inflammatory fluid produced by the injured and dying cells. Seromas are different from hematomas, which contain red blood cells, and different from abscesses, which contain pus and result from an infection. Serous fluid is also different from lymph. Early or improper removal of sutures can sometimes lead to formation of seroma or discharge of serous fluid from operative areas. Seromas can also sometimes be caused by injury, such as when the initial swelling from a blow or fall does not fully subside. The remaining serous fluid causes a seroma that the body usually absorbs gradually over time (often taking many days or weeks); however, a knot of calcified tissue sometimes remains. Seromas are particularly common after breast surgery (for example after mastectomy), abdominal surgeries, and reconstructive surgery. They are a treatment target in partial-breast radiation therapy, The larger the surgical intervention, the more likely it is that seromas appear.

  • Laminectomy


    A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that removes a portion of the vertebral bone called the lamina, which is the roof of the spinal canal. It is a major spine operation with residual scar tissue and may result in postlaminectomy syndrome. Depending on the problem, smaller alternatives, e.g., small endoscopic procedures, without bone removal, may be possible.

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