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  • Rainwater tank


    A rainwater tank (sometimes called a rain barrel in North America in reference to smaller tanks, or a water butt in the UK) is a water tank used to collect and store rain water runoff, typically from rooftops via pipes. Rainwater tanks are devices for collecting and maintaining harvested rain. A rainwater catchment or collection (also known as "rainwater harvesting") system can yield of water from of rain on a roof.Rainfall Catchment Equation: Catchment Area (often roofs, in square feet, ft2) x Event Rainfall Depth (in) x 0.623 Conversion Factor = Gallons of Potential Rainwater Collected*Note this equation is for U.S., imperial measurements; i.e. calculations and conversion factor is for distance in feet and inches, and volume in gallons. (We need a metric system equation.)Rainwater tanks are installed to make use of rain water for later use, reduce mains water use for economic or environmental reasons, and aid self-sufficiency. Stored water may be used for watering gardens, agriculture, flushing toilets, in washing machines, washing cars, and also for drinking, especially when other water supplies are unavailable, expensive, or of poor quality, and when adequate care is taken that the water is not contaminated and is adequately filtered. Underground rainwater tanks can also be used for retention of stormwater for release at a later time and offer a variety of benefits described in more detail below. In arid climates, rain barrels are often used to store water during the rainy season for use during dryer periods. Rainwater tanks may have a high (perceived) initial cost. However, many homes use small scale rain barrels to harvest minute quantities of water for landscaping/gardening applications rather than as a potable water surrogate. These small rain barrels, often recycled from food storage and transport barrels or, in some cases, whiskey and wine aging barrels, are often inexpensive. There are also many low cost designs that use locally available materials and village level technologies for applications in developing countries where there are limited alternatives for potable drinking water. While most are properly engineered to screen out mosquitoes, the lack of proper filtering or closed loop systems may create breeding grounds for larvae. With tanks used for drinking water, the user runs a health risk if maintenance is not carried out.

  • Urban runoff


    Urban runoff flowing into a storm drainUrban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization. This runoff is a major source of flooding and water pollution in urban communities worldwide. Impervious surfaces (roads, parking lots and sidewalks) are constructed during land development. During rain storms and other precipitation events, these surfaces (built from materials such as asphalt and concrete), along with rooftops, carry polluted stormwater to storm drains, instead of allowing the water to percolate through soil. This causes lowering of the water table (because groundwater recharge is lessened) and flooding since the amount of water that remains on the surface is greater. Most municipal storm sewer systems discharge stormwater, untreated, to streams, rivers and bays. This excess water can also make its way into people's properties through basement backups and seepage through building wall and floors.

  • Diane Hendricks


    Diane Marie Hendricks (born 1947) is an American businesswoman and film producer from Wisconsin. She is the widow of businessman Ken Hendricks.

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