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  • Carpal tunnel syndrome

    serch.it?q=Carpal-tunnel-syndrome

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve as it travels through the wrist at the carpal tunnel. The main symptoms are pain, numbness and tingling in the thumb, index finger, middle finger and the thumb side of the ring fingers. Symptoms typically start gradually and during the night. Pain may extend up the arm. Weak grip strength may occur, and after a long period of time the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. In more than half of cases, both sides are affected. Risk factors include obesity, repetitive wrist work, pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. There is tentative evidence that hypothyroidism increases the risk. Diabetes mellitus is weakly associated with CTS. The use of birth control pills does not affect the risk. Types of work that are associated include computer work, work with vibrating tools and work that requires a strong grip. Diagnosis is suspected based on signs, symptoms and specific physical tests and may be confirmed with electrodiagnostic tests. If muscle wasting at the base of the thumb is present, the diagnosis is likely. Being physically active can decrease the risk of developing CTS. Symptoms can be improved by wearing a wrist splint or with corticosteroid injections. Taking NSAIDs or gabapentin does not appear to be useful. Surgery to cut the transverse carpal ligament is effective with better results at a year compared to non surgical options. Further splinting after surgery is not needed. Evidence does not support magnet therapy. About 5% of people in the United States have carpal tunnel syndrome. It usually begins in adulthood, and women are more commonly affected than men. Up to 33% of people may improve without specific treatment over approximately a year. Carpal tunnel syndrome was first fully described after World War II.

  • Dysesthesia

    serch.it?q=Dysesthesia

    Dysesthesia (or dysaesthesia) comes from the Greek word "dys," meaning "not-normal," and "aesthesis," which means "sensation" (abnormal sensation). It is defined as an unpleasant, abnormal sense of touch. It often presents as pain but may also present as an inappropriate, but not discomforting, sensation. It is caused by lesions of the nervous system, peripheral or central, and it involves sensations, whether spontaneous or evoked, such as burning, wetness, itching, electric shock, and pins and needles. Dysesthesia can include sensations in any bodily tissue, including most often the mouth, scalp, skin, or legs. It is sometimes described as feeling like acid under the skin. Burning dysesthesia might accurately reflect an acidotic state in the synapses and perineural space. Some ion channels will open to a low pH, and the acid sensing ion channel has been shown to open at body temperature, in a model of nerve injury pain. Inappropriate, spontaneous firing in pain receptors has also been implicated as a cause of dysesthesia. People with dysesthesia can become incapacitated with pain, despite no apparent damage to the skin or other tissue. Dysesthesia patients also often have psychological disorders.

  • Paresthesia

    serch.it?q=Paresthesia

    Paresthesia is an abnormal dermal sensation (e.g., a tingling, pricking, chilling, burning, or numb sensation on the skin) with no apparent physical cause. The manifestation of a paresthesia may be transient or chronic, and may have any of dozens of possible underlying causes. Paresthesias are usually painless and can occur anywhere on the body, but commonly occur in the extremities (e.g., hands, feet, arms, or legs). The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles" or of a limb "falling asleep". A less well-known and uncommon but important paresthesia is formication, the sensation of bugs crawling underneath the skin.

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