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  • Tankless water heating


    The inside of a hydraulically operated two-stage tankless heater, heated by single-phase electric power. The copper tank contains heating elements with 18kW maximum power.Tankless water heaters—also called instantaneous, continuous flow, inline, flash, on-demand, or instant-on water heaters are water heaters that instantly heat water as it flows through the device, and do not retain any water internally except for what is in the heat exchanger coil. Copper heat exchangers are preferred in these units because of their high thermal conductivity and ease of fabrication. Tankless heaters may be installed throughout a household at more than one point-of-use (POU), far from a central water heater, or larger centralized models may still be used to provide all the hot water requirements for an entire house. The main advantages of tankless water heaters are a plentiful continuous flow of hot water (as compared to a limited flow of continuously heated hot water from conventional tank water heaters), and potential energy savings under some conditions. The main disadvantage of these systems are their high initial costs (equipment and installation).

  • EcoCute


    Domestic EcoCute outdoor unit (front) and hot water storage tank (back) The EcoCute is an energy efficient electric heat pump, water heating and supply system that uses heat extracted from the air to heat water for domestic, industrial and commercial use. Instead of the more conventional ammonia or haloalkane gases, EcoCute uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a refrigerant. The technology offers a means of energy conservation and reduces the emission of greenhouse gas.

  • Hot water storage tank


    wood-fueled furnace. A hot water storage tank where one of the heat sources is solar heating A, that is sent into the hot water storage tank via a smaller pump B (circle with triangle) and the heat exchanger spiral in the hot water storage tank. The other spiral C can be used for a e.g. oil-fired boiler or a wood burner. At D the hot water gets out and domestic cold water is sent back at the bottom at E. A hot water storage tank where one of the heat sources is solar heating. Almost the same example as above, but in a domestic habitat. A hot water storage tank (also called a hot water tank, thermal storage tank, hot water thermal storage unit, heat storage tank and hot water cylinder) is a water tank used for storing hot water for space heating or domestic use. Water is a convenient heat storage medium because it has a high specific heat capacity. This means, compared to other substances, it can store more heat per unit of weight. Water is non-toxic and low cost. An efficiently insulated tank can retain stored heat for days, reducing fuel costs. Hot water tanks may have a built-in gas or oil burner system, electric immersion heaters. Some types use an external heat exchanger such as a central heating system, or heated water from another energy source. The most typical, in the domestic context, is a fossil-fuel burner, electric immersion elements, or a district heating scheme. Water heaters for washing, bathing, or laundry have thermostat controls to regulate the temperature, in the range of , and are connected to the domestic cold water supply. Where the local water supply has a high content of dissolved minerals such as limestone, heating the water causes the minerals to precipitate in the tank (scaling). A tank may develop leaks due to corrosion after only a few years, a problem exacerbated by dissolved oxygen in the water which accelerates corrosion of both tank and fittings.

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