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  • Piriformis syndrome

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    Piriformis syndrome is a condition which is believed to result from compression of the sciatic nerve around the piriformis muscle. Symptoms may include pain and numbness in the buttocks and down the leg. Often symptoms are worsened with sitting or running. Causes may include trauma to the gluteal muscle, spasms of the piriformis muscle, anatomical variation, or an overuse injury. Few cases in athletics, however, have been described. Diagnosis is difficult as there is no definitive test. A number of physical exam maneuvers can be supportive. Medical imaging is typically normal. Other conditions that may present similarly include a herniated disc. Treatment may include avoiding activities that cause symptoms, stretching, physiotherapy, and medication such as NSAIDs. Steroid or botulinum toxin injections may be used in those who do not improve. Surgery is not typically recommended. The frequency of the condition is unknown, with different groups arguing it is more or less common.

  • Polymyalgia rheumatica

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    Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) is a syndrome with pain or stiffness, usually in the neck, shoulders, upper arms, and hips, but which may occur all over the body. The pain can be very sudden, or can occur gradually over a period. Most people with PMR wake up in the morning with pain in their muscles; however, cases have occurred in which the person has developed the pain during the evenings or has pain and stiffness all day long. People who have polymyalgia rheumatica may also have temporal arteritis, an inflammation of blood vessels in the face which can cause blindness if not treated quickly. The pain and stiffness can result in a lowered quality of life, and can lead to depression. Polymyalgia rheumatica is often seen in association with temporal arteritis. It is thought to be brought on by a viral or bacterial illness or trauma of some kind, but genetics does play a factor as well. Persons of Northern European descent are at greater risk. There is no definitive laboratory test, but C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can be useful. PMR is usually treated with corticosteroids taken by mouth. Most people need to continue the corticosteroid treatment for two to three years. PMR sometimes goes away on its own in a year or two, but medications and self-care measures can improve the rate of recovery. PMR was first established as a distinct disease in 1966 by a case report on 11 patients at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York, NY. It takes its name from the Greek word Πολυμυαλγία "polymyalgia" which means "pain in many muscles".

  • Meralgia paraesthetica

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    Meralgia paresthetica or meralgia paraesthetica (or Bernhardt-Roth syndrome), is numbness or pain in the outer thigh not caused by injury to the thigh, but by injury to a nerve that extends from the spinal column to the thigh. This chronic neurological disorder involves a single nerve—the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, which is also called the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (and hence the syndrome lateral femoral cutaneous neuropathy). The term "meralgia paraesthetica" combines four Greek roots to mean "thigh pain with anomalous perception". The disorder has also been nicknamed skinny pants syndrome, in reference to a rise in teenagers wearing skin-tight trousers.

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