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  • Subacromial bursitis


    Subacromial bursitis is a condition caused by inflammation of the bursa that separates the superior surface of the supraspinatus tendon (one of the four tendons of the rotator cuff) from the overlying coraco-acromial ligament, acromion, and coracoid (the acromial arch) and from the deep surface of the deltoid muscle. The subacromial bursa helps the motion of the supraspinatus tendon of the rotator cuff in activities such as overhead work. Musculoskeletal complaints are one of the most common reasons for primary care office visits, and rotator cuff disorders are the most common source of shoulder pain. Primary inflammation of the subacromial bursa is relatively rare and may arise from autoimmune inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis; crystal deposition disorders such as gout or pseudogout; calcific loose bodies, and infection. More commonly, subacromial bursitis arises as a result of complex factors, thought to cause shoulder impingement symptoms. These factors are broadly classified as intrinsic (intratendinous) or extrinsic (extratendinous). They are further divided into primary or secondary causes of impingement.

  • Dislocated shoulder


    A dislocated shoulder is when the head of the humerus is out of the shoulder joint. Symptoms include shoulder pain and instability. Complications may include a Bankart lesion, Hill-Sachs lesion, rotator cuff tear, or injury to the axillary nerve. A shoulder dislocation often occurs as a result of a fall onto an outstretched arm or onto the shoulder. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and confirmed by X-rays. They are classified as anterior, posterior, inferior, and superior with most being anterior. Treatment is by shoulder reduction which may be accomplished by a number of techniques including traction-countertraction, external rotation, scapular manipulation, and the Stimson technique. After reduction X-rays are recommended for verification. The arm may than be placed in a sling for a few weeks. Surgery may be recommended in those with recurrent dislocations. About 1.7% of people have a shoulder dislocation within their lifetime. In the United States this is about 24 per 100,000 people per year. They make up about half of major joint dislocations seen in emergency departments. Males are affected more often than females.

  • Shoulder problem


    Shoulder problems including pain, are one of the more common reasons for physician visits for musculoskeletal symptoms. The shoulder is the most movable joint in the body. However, it is an unstable joint because of the range of motion allowed. This instability increases the likelihood of joint injury, often leading to a degenerative process in which tissues break down and no longer function well. Shoulder pain may be localized or may be referred to areas around the shoulder or down the arm. . Other regions within the body (such as gallbladder, liver, or heart disease, or disease of the cervical spine of the neck) also may generate pain that the brain may interpret as arising from the shoulder.

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