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  • Levomepromazine

    serch.it?q=Levomepromazine

    Levomepromazine, also known as methotrimeprazine, is a phenothiazine neuroleptic drug. Brand names include Nozinan, Levoprome, Detenler, Hirnamin, Levotomin, Neurocil. It is a low-potency antipsychotic (approximately half as potent as chlorpromazine) with strong analgesic, hypnotic and antiemetic properties that is primarily used in palliative care. Serious side effects include tardive dyskinesia, akathisia, abnormalities in the electrical cycle of the heart, low blood pressure and the potentially fatal neuroleptic malignant syndrome. As is typical of phenothiazine antipsychotics, levomepromazine is a "dirty drug", that is, it exerts its effects by blocking a variety of receptors, including adrenergic receptors, dopamine receptors, histamine receptors, muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and serotonin receptors.

  • Carbamazepine

    serch.it?q=Carbamazepine

    Carbamazepine (CBZ), sold under the tradename Tegretol, among others, is a medication used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. It is not effective for absence seizures or myoclonic seizures. It is used in schizophrenia along with other medications and as a second-line agent in bipolar disorder. Carbamazepine appears to work as well as phenytoin and valproate. Common side effects include nausea and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include skin rashes, decreased bone marrow function, suicidal thoughts, or confusion. It should not be used in those with a history of bone marrow problems. Use during pregnancy may cause harm to the baby; however stopping it in pregnant women with seizures is not recommended. Its use during breastfeeding is not recommended. Care should be taken in those with either kidney or liver problems. Carbamazepine was discovered in 1953 by Swiss chemist Walter Schindler. It was first marketed in 1962. It is available as a generic medication. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.01 and US$0.07 per dose as of 2014.

  • Zolpidem

    serch.it?q=Zolpidem

    Zolpidem, sold under the brand name Ambien, among others, is a medication primarily used for the short term treatment of sleeping problems. Guidelines recommend that it be used only after counseling and behavioral changes have been tried. It decreases the time to sleep onset by about 15 minutes and at larger doses helps people stay asleep longer. It is taken by mouth and is available in conventional tablets or sublingual tablets and oral spray. Common side effects include daytime sleepiness, headache, nausea, and diarrhea. Other side effects include memory problems, hallucinations, and abuse. The recommended dose was decreased in 2013 due to next-morning impairment. Additionally driving the next morning is not recommended with either higher doses or the long acting formulation. While flumazenil can reverse zolpidem's effects, usually supportive care is all that is recommended in overdose. Zolpidem is a nonbenzodiazepine and hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class. Zolpidem is a type A GABA receptor agonist. It works by increasing GABA effects in the central nervous system by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It generally has a half-life of two to three hours. This, however, is increased in those with liver problems. Zolpidem was approved for medical use in the United States in 1992. It became available as a generic medication in 2007. In the United States it has a monthly cost of about 8 for immediate release and 66 for controlled release medication, as of 2017. Zolpidem is a Schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA). More than 10 million prescriptions are filled a year in the United States, making it one of the most commonly used treatments for sleeping problems.

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