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  • Doxylamine


    Doxylamine is a first-generation antihistamine. It can be used by itself as a short-term sedative and in combination with other drugs to provide night-time allergy and cold relief. Doxylamine is also used in combination with the analgesics paracetamol (acetaminophen) and codeine as an analgesic/calmative preparation, and is prescribed in combination with vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) to prevent morning sickness in pregnant women. Its fetal safety is "A" in Briggs’ Reference Guide to Foetal and Neonatal Risk.

  • Cetirizine


    Cetirizine, sold under the brand name Zyrtec among others, is a second-generation antihistamine used to treat hay fever, allergies, angioedema, and urticaria. It acts as a selective antagonist of the histamine H1 receptor. Second-generation antihistamines like cetirizine are less able to cross the blood–brain barrier and therefore have diminished effects on the central nervous system compared to first-generation drugs. Because of this, they are less likely to cause drowsiness or memory impairment. In 2016 it was the 74th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 10 million prescriptions.

  • Diphenhydramine


    Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine mainly used to treat allergies. It is also used for insomnia, symptoms of the common cold, tremor in parkinsonism, and nausea. It is used by mouth, injection into a vein, and injection into a muscle. Maximal effect is typically around two hours after a dose, and effects can last for up to seven hours. Common side effects include sleepiness, poor coordination, and an upset stomach. Its use is not recommended in babies. There is no clear risk of harm when used during pregnancy; however, use during breastfeeding is not recommended. It is a first generation H1-antihistamine and works by blocking certain effects of histamine. Diphenhydramine is also an anticholinergic. Diphenhydramine was first made by George Rieveschl and came into commercial use in 1946. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale price in the developing world is about per dose. In the United States, it costs less than for a typical month’s supply. It is sold under the trade name Benadryl, among others.

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