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  • Intravenous sodium bicarbonate


    Intravenous sodium bicarbonate, also known as sodium hydrogen carbonate, is a medication primarily used to treat severe metabolic acidosis. For this purpose it is generally only used when the pH is less than 7.1 and when the underlying cause is either diarrhea, vomiting, or the kidneys. Other uses include high blood potassium, tricyclic antidepressant overdose, and cocaine toxicity as well as a number of other poisonings. It is given by injection into a vein. Side effects may include low blood potassium, high blood sodium, and swelling. It is not recommended in people with low blood calcium. Sodium bicarbonate is in the alkalinizing family of medication. It works by increasing blood bicarbonate, which buffers excess hydrogen ion and raises blood pH. Commercial production of sodium bicarbonate began between 1791 and 1823. Intravenous medical use began around the 1950s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Sodium bicarbonate is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.09–2.58 per 10 ml of 8.4% solution. In the United Kingdom this amount costs the NHS about 11.10 pounds.

  • Sodium bicarbonate


    Sodium bicarbonate (IUPAC name: sodium hydrogen carbonate), commonly known as baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt composed of a sodium cation (Na+) and a bicarbonate anion (HCO3−). Sodium bicarbonate is a white solid that is crystalline, but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty, alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found dissolved in many mineral springs.

  • Crack cocaine


    Two grams of crack cocaineCrack cocaine, also known simply as crack, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a short but intense high to smokers. The Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack cocaine is commonly used as a recreational drug. Crack first saw widespread use in primarily impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Washington DC, Los Angeles, and Miami in late 1984 and 1985; its rapid increase in use and availability is sometimes termed as the "crack epidemic".

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