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  • Statin


    Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications. Statins have been found to reduce cardiovascular disease and mortality in those who are at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The evidence is strong that statins are effective for treating cardiovascular disease in the early stages of the disease (secondary prevention) and in those at elevated risk but without cardiovascular disease (primary prevention). Side effects of statins include muscle pain, increased risk of diabetes mellitus, and abnormalities in liver enzyme tests. Additionally, they have rare but severe adverse effects, particularly muscle damage. They inhibit the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase which plays a central role in the production of cholesterol. High cholesterol levels have been associated with cardiovascular disease. , a number of statins are on the market: atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin. Several combination preparations of a statin and another agent, such as ezetimibe/simvastatin, are also available. In 2005, sales were estimated at US$18.7billion in the United States. The best-selling statin is atorvastatin also known as Lipitor, which in 2003 became the best-selling pharmaceutical in history. The manufacturer Pfizer reported sales of US$12.4billion in 2008. Due to patent expirations, several statins became available in 2016 as less expensive generics.

  • Atorvastatin


    Atorvastatin, sold under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a statin medication used to prevent cardiovascular disease in those at high risk and treat abnormal lipid levels. For the prevention of cardiovascular disease statins are a first line treatment. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include joint pain, diarrhea, heart burn, nausea, and muscle pains. Serious side effects may include rhabdomyolysis, liver problems, and diabetes. Use during pregnancy may harm the baby. Like all statins, atorvastatin works by inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase, an enzyme found in liver that plays a role in producing cholesterol. Atorvastatin was approved for medical use in the United States in 1996. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 3.80 USD as of 2018. In the United Kingdom it costs about £28 per month as of 2018. In 2016 it was the 3rd most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 96 million prescriptions.

  • Simvastatin


    Simvastatin, marketed under the trade name Zocor among others, is a lipid-lowering medication. It is used along with exercise, diet, and weight loss to decrease elevated lipid (fat) levels. It is also used to decrease the risk of heart problems in those at high risk. It is taken by mouth. Serious side effects may include muscle breakdown, liver problems, and increased blood sugar levels. Common side effects include constipation, headaches, and nausea. A lower dose may be needed in people with kidney problems. There is evidence of harm to unborn babies when taken during pregnancy and it should not be used by those who are breastfeeding. It is in the statin class of medications and works by decreasing the manufacture of cholesterol by the liver. Simvastatin was developed by Merck and came into medical use in 1992. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. It is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is US$0.01 to 0.12 per day . In the United States it costs between US$0.50 and 1.00 per day. Simvastatin is made from the fungus Aspergillus terreus. In 2016 it was the 8th most prescribed medication in the United States with more than 65 million prescriptions.

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