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  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    serch.it?q=Chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking or getting dressed, become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is poorly vented heating and cooking fires. Long-term exposure to these irritants causes an inflammatory response in the lungs, resulting in narrowing of the small airways and breakdown of lung tissue. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, the airflow reduction does not improve much with the use of a bronchodilator. Most cases of COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to risk factors. This includes decreasing rates of smoking and improving indoor and outdoor air quality. While treatment can slow worsening, no cure is known. COPD treatments include smoking cessation, vaccinations, respiratory rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation. In those who have periods of acute worsening, increased use of medications and hospitalization may be needed. As of 2015, COPD affected about 174.5 million (2.4%) of the global population. It typically occurs in people over the age of 40. Males and females are affected equally commonly. In 2015, it resulted in 3.2 million deaths, up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990. More than 90% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The number of deaths is projected to increase further because of higher smoking rates in the developing world, and an aging population in many countries. It resulted in an estimated economic cost of $2.1 trillion in 2010.

  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    serch.it?q=Idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of chronic lung disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function. Symptoms typically include gradual onset of shortness of breath and a dry cough. Other changes may include feeling tired and nail clubbing. Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, certain viral infections, and a family history of the condition. The underlying mechanism involves scarring of the lungs. Diagnosis requires ruling out other potential causes and may be supported by a CT scan or lung biopsy. It is a type of interstitial lung disease (ILD). People often benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen. Certain medications like pirfenidone or nintedanib may slow the progression of the disease. Lung transplantation may also be an option. About 5 million people are affected globally. The disease newly occurs in about 12 per 100,000 people per year. Those in their 60s and 70s are most commonly affected. Males are affected more often than females. Average life expectancy following diagnosis is about four years.

  • Respiratory failure

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    Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels. A drop in the oxygen carried in blood is known as hypoxemia; a rise in arterial carbon dioxide levels is called hypercapnia. Respiratory failure is classified as either Type I or Type II, based on whether there is a high carbon dioxide level. The definition of respiratory failure in clinical trials usually includes increased respiratory rate, abnormal blood gases (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or both), and evidence of increased work of breathing. The normal partial pressure reference values are: oxygen PaO2 more than , and carbon dioxide PaCO2 lesser than .

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