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Here are your numbers and how the GOLD System breaks down the COPD Stages: Stage 1: Very mild COPD with a FEV1 about 80 percent or more of normal. Stage 2: Moderate COPD with a FEV1 between 50 and 80 percent of normal. Stage 3: Severe emphysema with FEV1 between 30 and 50 percent of normal.
Stage 2 – moderate COPD; Stage 3 – severe emphysema/chronic bronchitis; Stage 4 – very severe COPD; Each stage has a different impact on each sufferer, but the general idea is the higher the stage of COPD, the shorter the life expectancy. Another system that doctor’s use to measure life expectancy with COPD is with the BODE Index.
But if you’re in the more severe COPD stages (Stage 3 and Stage 4 COPD), plus you still smoke, your COPD life expectancy is reduced by more; studies suggest you lose about six years of life. One of the ways your doctor can predict your COPD life expectancy is by comparing your COPD signs and symptoms to the “GOLD” COPD guidelines (GOLD stands for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease).
The GOLD system also considers the patient’s smoking status as COPD patients who continue to smoke have a higher mortality rate. According to the GOLD system, current smokers with stage 1 COPD have a life expectancy of 14 years while smokers with stage 2 COPD have a life expectancy of 12 years.
After learning information about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the COPD stages, prognosis and life expectancy and specifics about stage 1 COPD, it’s time to go in-depth in the next COPD stage: moderate COPD or stage 2 COPD.Because each stage of COPD differs in symptom severity, rate of progression and how COPD affects your life, having a good understanding of each stage is ...
Group A (GOLD 1 or 2): Your symptoms are very mild. Your FEV 1 is 80% or more. You might have had no flare-ups over the past year, or perhaps just one.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. The main symptoms include shortness of breath and cough with sputum production. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it typically worsens over time. Eventually everyday activities, such as walking or getting dressed, become difficult. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are older terms used for different types of COPD. The term "chronic bronchitis" is still used to define a productive cough that is present for at least three months each year for two years. Tobacco smoking is the most common cause of COPD, with factors such as air pollution and genetics playing a smaller role. In the developing world, one of the common sources of air pollution is poorly vented heating and cooking fires. Long-term exposure to these irritants causes an inflammatory response in the lungs, resulting in narrowing of the small airways and breakdown of lung tissue. The diagnosis is based on poor airflow as measured by lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, the airflow reduction does not improve much with the use of a bronchodilator. Most cases of COPD can be prevented by reducing exposure to risk factors. This includes decreasing rates of smoking and improving indoor and outdoor air quality. While treatment can slow worsening, no cure is known. COPD treatments include smoking cessation, vaccinations, respiratory rehabilitation, and often inhaled bronchodilators and steroids. Some people may benefit from long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation. In those who have periods of acute worsening, increased use of medications and hospitalization may be needed. As of 2015, COPD affected about 174.5 million (2.4%) of the global population. It typically occurs in people over the age of 40. Males and females are affected equally commonly. In 2015, it resulted in 3.2 million deaths, up from 2.4 million deaths in 1990. More than 90% of these deaths occur in the developing world. The number of deaths is projected to increase further because of higher smoking rates in the developing world, and an aging population in many countries. It resulted in an estimated economic cost of $2.1 trillion in 2010.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a type of chronic lung disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible decline in lung function. Symptoms typically include gradual onset of shortness of breath and a dry cough. Other changes may include feeling tired and nail clubbing. Complications may include pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, pneumonia, or pulmonary embolism. The cause is unknown. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, certain viral infections, and a family history of the condition. The underlying mechanism involves scarring of the lungs. Diagnosis requires ruling out other potential causes and may be supported by a CT scan or lung biopsy. It is a type of interstitial lung disease (ILD). People often benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation and supplemental oxygen. Certain medications like pirfenidone or nintedanib may slow the progression of the disease. Lung transplantation may also be an option. About 5 million people are affected globally. The disease newly occurs in about 12 per 100,000 people per year. Those in their 60s and 70s are most commonly affected. Males are affected more often than females. Average life expectancy following diagnosis is about four years.
Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels. A drop in the oxygen carried in blood is known as hypoxemia; a rise in arterial carbon dioxide levels is called hypercapnia. Respiratory failure is classified as either Type I or Type II, based on whether there is a high carbon dioxide level. The definition of respiratory failure in clinical trials usually includes increased respiratory rate, abnormal blood gases (hypoxemia, hypercapnia, or both), and evidence of increased work of breathing. The normal partial pressure reference values are: oxygen PaO2 more than , and carbon dioxide PaCO2 lesser than .