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  • Ikejime

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    or is a method of slaughtering fish to maintain the quality of its meat. The technique originated in Japan, but is now in widespread use. It involves the insertion of a spike quickly and directly into the hindbrain, usually located slightly behind and above the eye, thereby causing immediate brain death. When spiked correctly, the fish fins flare and the fish relaxes, immediately ceasing all motion. Destroying the brain and the spinal cord of the fish will prevent reflex action from happening; such muscle movements would otherwise consume adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the muscle, and as a result produce lactic acid, making the fish sour. Furthermore, the blood contained in the fish flesh retracts to the gut cavity, which produces a better coloured and flavoured fillet. This method is considered to be the fastest and most humane method of killing fish. It is very similar to the technique used on frogs in laboratories called spiking or pithing. Another technique in APEC Air shipment of live and fresh fish and seafood guidelines is described as follows: "A cut is made toward the front of the flatfish severing the major artery and the spinal cord.

  • Heartbleed

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    Logo representing Heartbleed. Security company Codenomicon gave Heartbleed both a name and a logo, contributing to public awareness of the issue.Heartbleed is a security bug in the OpenSSL cryptography library, which is a widely used implementation of the Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol. It was introduced into the software in 2012 and publicly disclosed in April 2014. Heartbleed may be exploited regardless of whether the vulnerable OpenSSL instance is running as a TLS server or client. It results from improper input validation (due to a missing bounds check) in the implementation of the TLS heartbeat extension. Thus, the bug's name derives from heartbeat. The vulnerability is classified as a buffer over-read, a situation where more data can be read than should be allowed. Heartbleed is registered in the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures database as . The federal Canadian Cyber Incident Response Centre issued a security bulletin advising system administrators about the bug. A fixed version of OpenSSL was released on April 7, 2014, on the same day Heartbleed was publicly disclosed. , 1.5% of the 800,000 most popular TLS-enabled websites were still vulnerable to Heartbleed. TLS implementations other than OpenSSL, such as GnuTLS, Mozilla's Network Security Services, and the Windows platform implementation of TLS, were not affected because the defect existed in the OpenSSL's implementation of TLS rather than in the protocol itself.

  • NLF and PAVN battle tactics

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    Member of a NLF/Viet Cong Main Force Unit. They shared common arms, procedures, tactics, organization and personnel with PAVN.NLF and PAVN battle tactics comprised a flexible mix of guerrilla and conventional warfare battle tactics used by the Main Force of the People's Liberation Armed Forces (known as the National Liberation Front or Viet Cong in the West) and the NVA (People's Army-Vietnam) to defeat their U.S. and South Vietnamese (GVN/ARVN) opponents during the Vietnam War. The NLF was an umbrella of front groups to conduct the insurgency in South Vietnam. The NLF was affiliated with independent groups and sympathizers. The armed wing of the NLF was regional and local guerrillas, and the People's Liberation Armed Forces (PLAF). The PLAF was the "Main Force" – the Chu Luc full-time soldiers of the NLF's military muscle. Many histories lump both the NLF and the armed wing under the term "Viet Cong" in common usage. Both were tightly interwoven and were in turn controlled by the North. Others consider the Viet Cong to primarily refer to the armed elements. The term PAVN (People's Army of Vietnam) identifies regular troops of the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). Collectively, both forces – the southern armed wing and the regulars from the north were part of PAVN, and are treated as such in official communist histories of the war.

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