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  • Militarization of police

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    SWAT team members, some armed with assault rifles, prepare for an exercise. A large group of Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) SWAT officers in tactical gear at a Lakers parade in 2009Militarization of police refers to the use of military equipment and tactics by law enforcement officers. This includes the use of armored personnel carriers, assault rifles, submachine guns, flashbang grenades, grenade launchers, sniper rifles, and Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams. The militarization of law enforcement is also associated with intelligence agency-style information gathering aimed at the public and political activists, and a more aggressive style of law enforcement. Criminal justice professor Peter Kraska has defined militarization of police as "the process whereby civilian police increasingly draw from, and pattern themselves around, the tenets of militarism and the military model." Observers have noted the militarizing of the policing of protests. Since the 1970s, riot police have fired at protesters using guns with rubber bullets or plastic bullets.

  • MRAP

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    Cougar HE MRAP being tested in January 2007 with landminesMine-Resistant Ambush Protected (MRAP; ) is a term for United States military light tactical vehicles produced as part of the MRAP program that are designed specifically to withstand improvised explosive device (IED) attacks and ambushes. The United States Department of Defense MRAP program began in 2007 as a response to the increased threat of IEDs during the Iraq War. From 2007 until 2012, the MRAP program deployed more than 12,000 vehicles in the Iraq War and War in Afghanistan. MRAP vehicles have been used by the United States military and others. Production of MRAP vehicles officially ended in 2012. This was followed by the MRAP All Terrain (M-ATV) vehicle. In 2015, Oshkosh Corporation was awarded a contract to build the Oshkosh L-ATV as the Joint Light Tactical Vehicle, a lighter mine-resistant vehicle to replace the Humvee in combat roles and supplement the M-ATV.

  • 1033 program

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    Slide from the Defense Logistics Agency's brochure, describing the 1033 Program's transfer of military equipment to American police forces. In the United States, the 1033 Program transfers excess military equipment to civilian law enforcement agencies. The program legally requires the Department of Defense to make various items of equipment available to local law enforcement. , 8,000 local law enforcement agencies participated in the program that has transferred $5.1 billion in military material from the Department of Defense to law enforcement agencies since 1997. According to the Defense Logistics Agency, material worth $449 million was transferred in 2013 alone. Some of the most commonly requested items include ammunition, cold weather clothing, sand bags, medical supplies, sleeping bags, flashlights and electrical wiring. Small arms and vehicles such as aircraft, watercraft and armored vehicles have also been obtained. The program has been criticized over the years by local media, by the Office of the Inspector General, U.S. Department of Defense in 2003, and by the GAO which found waste, fraud and abuse. It was not until media coverage of police during August 2014 Ferguson unrest that the program drew nationwide public attention; the Ferguson Police Department had equipment obtained through the 1033 program. President Obama signed Executive Order 13688 on May 2015 limiting and prohibiting certain types of equipment. On 28 August 2017 President Trump rolled back Obama's Executive Order. The ACLU and the NAACP have raised concerns about they call the militarization of police forces in the US. Attorney General Jeff Sessions announced the move early Monday morning of that week at the Fraternal Order of Police convention in Nashville, and said the president would do so by executive order. At the same time, Attorney General Jeff Sessions and the director of the Fraternal Order of Police (FOP) pointed out the use of 1033 equipment as life saving devices seeing restrictions on distributing military surplus to police as “too far." The FOP also pointed out that the armored vehicles weren't tanks.

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