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  • Herpangina


    Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term "herpangina virus" refers to coxsackievirus A) but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses. Most cases of herpangina occur in the summer, affecting mostly children. However, it occasionally occurs in adolescents and adults. It was first characterized in 1920.

  • Herpes labialis


    Herpes labialis, commonly known as cold sores, is a type of infection by the herpes simplex virus that affects primarily the lip. Symptoms typically include a burning pain followed by small blisters or sores. The first attack may also be accompanied by fever, sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes. The rash usually heals within 10 days, but the virus remains dormant in the trigeminal ganglion. The virus may periodically reactivate to create another outbreak of sores in the mouth or lip. The cause is usually herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and occasionally herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The infection is typically spread between people by direct non-sexual contact. Attacks can be triggered by sunlight, fever, psychological stress, or a menstrual period. Direct contact with the genitals can result in genital herpes. Diagnosis is usually based on symptoms but can be confirmed with specific testing. Prevention includes avoiding kissing or using the personal items of a person who is infected. A zinc oxide, anesthetic, or antiviral cream appears to decrease the duration of symptoms by a small amount. Antiviral medications may also decrease the frequency of outbreaks. About 2.5 per 1000 people are affected with outbreaks in any given year. After one episode about 33% of people develop subsequent episodes. Onset often occurring in those less than 20 years old and 80% develop antibodies for the virus by this age. In those with recurrent outbreaks, these typically happen less than three times a year. The frequency of outbreaks generally decreases over time.

  • Monkeypox


    Monkeypox is an infectious disease caused by the monkeypox virus that can occur in certain animals including humans. Symptoms begin with fever, headache, muscle pains, swollen lymph nodes, and feeling tired. This is followed by a rash that forms blisters and crusts over. The time from exposure to onset of symptoms is around 10 days. The duration of symptoms is typically 2 to 5 weeks. Monkeypox may be spread from handling bush meat, an animal bite or scratch, body fluids, contaminated objects, or close contact with an infected person. The virus is believed to normally circulate among certain rodents in Africa. Diagnosis can be confirmed by testing a lesion for the virus's DNA. The disease can appear similar to chickenpox. The smallpox vaccine is believed to prevent infection. Cidofovir may be useful as treatment. The risk of death in those infected is up to 10%. The disease mostly occurs in Central and West Africa. It was first identified in 1958 among laboratory monkeys. The first cases in humans were found in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. An outbreak that occurred in the United States in 2003 was traced to a pet store where imported Gambian rodents were sold.

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