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  • Menopause

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    Menopause, also known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, and they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause typically occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals often define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any vaginal bleeding for a year. It may also be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be viewed to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms typically occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age. In the years before menopause, a woman's periods typically become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women often experience hot flashes; these typically last from 30 seconds to ten minutes and may be associated with shivering, sweating, and reddening of the skin. Hot flashes often stop occurring after a year or two.

  • Harlequin syndrome

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    A person exhibiting the asymmetric symptoms of Harlequin syndrome. One half of the forehead is red, and the other half is white. Harlequin syndrome is a condition characterized by asymmetric sweating and flushing on the upper thoracic region of the chest, neck and face. Harlequin syndrome is considered an injury to the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS controls some of the body's natural processes such as sweating, skin flushing and pupil response to stimuli. Such individuals with this syndrome have an absence of sweat skin flushing unilaterally; usually on the one side of the face, arms and chest. It is an autonomic disorder that may occur at any age. Harlequin syndrome affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. Symptoms associated with Harlequin syndrome are more likely to appear when a person has been in the following conditions: exercising, warm environment and intense emotional situation. Since one side of the body sweats and flushes appropriately to the condition, the other side of the body will have an absence of such symptoms. This syndrome has also been called the "Harlequin sign" and thought to be one of the spectrum of diseases that may cause Harlequin syndrome. It can also be the outcome of a one sided endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) or endoscopic sympathetic blockade (ESB) surgery. Harlequin syndrome can also be seen as a complication of VA (veno-arterial) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). This involves differential hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) of the upper body in comparison to the lower body.

  • Hot flash

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    Hot flashes (American English) or hot flushes (British English) are a form of flushing due to reduced levels of estradiol. Hot flashes are a symptom which may have several other causes, but which is often caused by the changing hormone levels that are characteristic of menopause. They are typically experienced as a feeling of intense heat with sweating and rapid heartbeat, and may typically last from 2 to 30 minutes for each occurrence.

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