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  • Throttle


    A throttle is the mechanism by which fluid flow is managed by the constriction or obstruction. An engine's power can be increased or decreased by the restriction of inlet gases (by the use of a throttle), but usually decreased. The term throttle has come to refer, informally, to any mechanism by which the power or speed of an engine is regulated, such as a car's accelerator pedal. What is often termed a throttle (in an aviation context) is also called a thrust lever, particularly for jet engine powered aircraft. For a steam engine, the steam valve that sets the engine speed/power is often known as a regulator.

  • Electronic throttle control


    Throttle body with integrated motor actuatorElectronic throttle control (ETC) is an automobile technology which electronically "connects" the accelerator pedal to the throttle, replacing a mechanical linkage. A typical ETC system consists of three major components: (i) an accelerator pedal module (ideally with two or more independent sensors), (ii) a throttle valve that can be opened and closed by an electric motor (sometimes referred to as an electric or electronic throttle body (ETB)), and (iii) a powertrain or engine control module (PCM or ECM). The ECM is a type of electronic control unit (ECU), which is an embedded system that employs software to determine the required throttle position by calculations from data measured by other sensors, including the accelerator pedal position sensors, engine speed sensor, vehicle speed sensor, and cruise control switches. The electric motor is then used to open the throttle valve to the desired angle via a closed-loop control algorithm within the ECM. The throttle valve is a part of the throttle body and is located between the air cleaner and intake manifold.

  • Throttle position sensor


    Throttle body showing throttle position sensor on the right A throttle position sensor (TPS) is a sensor used to monitor the throttle position of a vehicle. The sensor is usually located on the butterfly spindle/shaft so that it can directly monitor the position of the throttle. More advanced forms of the sensor are also used, for example an extra closed throttle position sensor (CTPS) may be employed to indicate that the throttle is completely closed. Some engine control units (ECUs) also control the throttle position electronic throttle control (ETC) or "drive by wire" systems and if that is done the position sensor is used in a feedback loop to enable that control. Related to the TPS are accelerator pedal sensors, which often include a wide open throttle (WOT) sensor. The accelerator pedal sensors are used in electronic throttle control or "drive by wire" systems, and the most common use of a wide open throttle sensor is for the kick-down function on automatic transmissions. Modern day sensors are non contact type. These modern non contact TPS include Hall effect sensors, inductive sensors, magnetoresistive and others.

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