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  • Achilles tendon rupture


    Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon, at the back of the ankle, breaks. Symptoms include the sudden onset of sharp pain in the heel. A snapping sound may be heard as the tendon breaks and walking becomes difficult. Rupture typically occurs as a result of a sudden bending up of the foot when the calf muscle is engaged, direct trauma, or long-standing tendonitis. Other risk factors include the use of fluoroquinolones, a significant change in exercise, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or corticosteroid use. Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and examination and supported by medical imaging. Prevention may include stretching before activity. Treatment may be by surgery or casting with the toes somewhat pointed down. Relatively rapid return to weight bearing (within 4 weeks) appears okay. The risk of re-rupture is about 25% with casting. If appropriate treatment does not occur within 4 weeks of the injury outcomes are not as good. Achilles tendon rupture occurs in about 1 per 10,000 people per year. Males are more commonly affected than females. People in their 30s to 50s are most commonly affected. The tendon itself was named in 1693 after the Greek hero Achilles.

  • Sprain


    A sprain, also known as a torn ligament, is damage to one or more ligaments in a joint, often caused by trauma or the joint being taken beyond its functional range of motion. The severity of sprain ranges from a minor injury which resolves in a few days to a major rupture of one or more ligaments requiring surgical fixation and a period of immobilization. Sprains can occur in any joint but are most common in the ankle and wrist.

  • Sprained ankle


    A sprained ankle, also known as a twisted ankle or rolled ankle, is a common injury where sprain occurs on one or more ligaments of the ankle.

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