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  • Sapovirus


    Sapovirus is a genetically diverse genus of single-stranded positive-sense RNA, non-enveloped viruses within the Caliciviridae family. Together with norovirus, sapoviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis (commonly called the "stomach flu" although it is not related to influenza) in humans and other animals. Natural hosts for the virus are humans and swine. The virus is transmitted through oral/fecal contact. Sapovirus most commonly occurs in children and infants and therefore is often spread in nurseries and daycares; however, it has been found in long term care facilities. This could be due to a lack of personal hygiene and sanitation measures. Symptoms most commonly include diarrhea and vomiting. The sapovirus was initially discovered in an outbreak of gastroenteritis in an orphanage in Sapporo, Japan, 1977.

  • Nitazoxanide


    Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthic, protozoal, and viral infections. It is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent individuals and has been repurposed for the treatment of influenza. Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths; emerging evidence suggests that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well. Chemically, nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, a class of drugs which are synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivatives with antiparasitic and antiviral activity. Tizoxanide, an active metabolite of nitazoxanide in humans, is also an antiparasitic drug of the thiazolide class.

  • Norovirus


    Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis. Infection is characterized by diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain. Blood is not usually present. Fever or headaches may also occur. This usually develops 12 to 48 hours after being exposed. Recovery typically occurs within 1 to 3 days. Complications may include dehydration. The virus is usually spread by the fecal–oral route. This may be by contaminated food or water or person-to-person contact. It may also spread via contaminated surfaces or through the air. Risk factors include unsanitary food preparation and sharing close quarters. Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms. Confirmatory testing may be done for public health purposes. Prevention involves proper hand washing and disinfection of contaminated surfaces. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are less effective. A vaccine does not exist. There is no specific treatment. Efforts involve supportive care such as drinking sufficient fluids or intravenous fluids. Oral rehydration solutions are the preferred fluids to drink, although other drinks without caffeine or alcohol can help. Norovirus results in about 685 million cases of disease and 200,000 deaths globally a year. It is common both in the developed and developing world. Those under the age of five are most often affected and in this group it results in about 50,000 deaths in the developing world. Disease more commonly occurs in winter months. It often occurs in outbreaks, especially among those living in close quarters. In the United States it is the cause of about half of food-borne disease outbreaks. The disease is named after Norwalk, Ohio, where an outbreak occurred in 1968.

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