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  • Wear and tear


    This neglected boot was ruined by a combination of wear and tear and extraordinary exposure to weather.Wear and tear is damage that naturally and inevitably occurs as a result of normal wear or aging. It is used in a legal context for such areas as warranty contracts from manufacturers, which usually stipulate that damage from wear and tear will not be covered. Wear and tear is a form of depreciation which is assumed to occur even when an item is used competently and with care and proper maintenance. For example, repeated impacts may cause stress to a hammer's head. This stress is impossible to prevent in the normal use of the tool for its designed task, and any attempt to avert it impedes its functionality. At the same time, it is expected that the normal use of a hammer will not break it beyond repair during a reasonable life cycle. The phenomenon of wear and tear reflects the second law of thermodynamics, in which objects stray from their original form and function over time unless energy from an external force is used to maintain them. If restoration is impossible an object is regarded as consumable.

  • Road collision types


    Road traffic collisions generally fall into one of four common types:A Mercury Tracer that was damaged by colliding with a white-tailed deer in Wisconsin. Lane departure crashes, which occur when a driver leaves the lane they are in and collide with another vehicle or a roadside object. These include head-on collisions and run-off-road collisions. Collisions at junctions include rear-end collision and angle or side impacts. Collisions involving pedestrians and cyclists. Collisions with animals.Other types of collision may occur. Rollovers are not very common, but lead to greater rates of severe injury and death. Some of these are secondary events that occur after a collision with a run-off-road crash or a collision with another vehicle. If several vehicles are involved, the term 'serial crash' may be used. If many vehicles are involved, the term 'major incident' may be used rather than 'pile up'.

  • Bumper (car)


    Chrome plated front bumper on a 1958 Ford Taunus tail lamps and a rubber-faced guard A bumper is a structure attached to or integrated with the front and rear ends of a motor vehicle, to absorb impact in a minor collision, ideally minimizing repair costs. Stiff metal bumpers appeared on automobiles as early as 1904 that had a mainly ornamental function. Numerous developments, improvements in materials and technologies, as well as greater focus on functionality for protecting vehicle components and improving safety have changed bumpers over the years. Bumpers ideally minimize height mismatches between vehicles and protect pedestrians from injury. Regulatory measures have been enacted to reduce vehicle repair costs, and more recently impact on pedestrians.

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