Web Results
Content Results
  • Stomach disease

    serch.it?q=Stomach-disease

    Stomach diseases (or gastropathy) include gastritis, gastroparesis, diarrhea, Crohn's disease and various cancers. The stomach is an important organ in the body. It plays a vital role in digestion of foods, releases various enzymes and also protects the lower intestine from harmful organisms. The stomach connects to the esophagus above and to the small intestine below. It is intricately related to the pancreas, spleen and liver. The stomach does vary in size but its J shape is constant. The stomach lies in the upper part of the abdomen just below the left rib cage. Examples including the name gastropathy include portal hypertensive gastropathy and Ménétrier's disease, also known as "hyperplastic hypersecretory gastropathy". However, there are many other stomach diseases that don't include the word "gastropathy" such as gastric or peptic ulcer disease, gastroparesis, and dyspepsia. Many stomach diseases are associated with infection. Historically, it was widely believed that the highly acidic environment of the stomach would keep the stomach immune from infection. However, a large number of studies have indicated that most cases of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. One of the ways it is able to survive in the stomach involves its urease enzymes which metabolize urea (which is normally secreted into the stomach) to ammonia and carbon dioxide which neutralises gastric acid and thus prevents its digestion. In recent years, it has been discovered that other Helicobacter bacteria are also capable of colonising the stomach and have been associated with gastritis. Having too little or no gastric acid is known as hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria respectively and are conditions which can have negative health impacts. Having high levels of gastric acid is called hyperchlorhydria. Many people believe that hyperchlorhydria can cause stomach ulcers. However, recent research indicates that the gastric mucosa which secretes gastric acid is acid-resistant. Gastritis and stomach cancer can be caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. There are many types of chronic disorders which affect the stomach. However, since the symptoms are localized to this organ, the typical symptoms of stomach problems include nausea, vomiting, bloating, cramps, diarrhea and pain.

  • Nausea

    serch.it?q=Nausea

    Nausea is an unpleasant, diffuse sensation of unease and discomfort, often perceived as an urge to vomit. While not painful, it can be a debilitating symptom if prolonged, and has been described as placing discomfort on the chest, upper abdomen, or back of the throat. Like pain, the purpose of nausea is to discourage the person or animal from repeating whatever caused the unpleasantness. The memory of pain elicits safer or evasive actions; the memory of nausea elicits revulsion towards whatever was eaten before vomiting it up — even if it was not the cause of the nausea. Nausea is a non-specific symptom, which means that it has many possible causes. Some common causes of nausea are motion sickness, dizziness, migraine, fainting, low blood sugar, gastroenteritis (stomach infection) or food poisoning. Nausea is a side effect of many medications including chemotherapy, or morning sickness in early pregnancy. Nausea may also be caused by anxiety, disgust and depression. Medications taken to prevent and treat nausea are called antiemetics. The most commonly prescribed antiemetics in the US are promethazine, metoclopramide and the newer, extremely effective ondansetron. The word nausea is from Latin nausea, from Greek – nausia, "ναυτία" – nautia, motion sickness, "feeling sick or queasy".

  • Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome

    serch.it?q=Cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome

    Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome can occur with cannabis use and is characterized by recurrent nausea, vomiting, and crampy abdominal pain. These symptoms have been reported to be improved temporarily by taking a hot shower or bath, or more fully by stopping the use of cannabis. It is important that cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome be distinguished from other causes of nausea and vomiting, such as cyclic vomiting syndrome. The pathogenesis of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is unclear, but it may involve accumulation of exogenous cannabinoids or alterations in the brain's regulation of body temperature. While definitive treatment involves abstinence from cannabinoids, various drug therapies have been studied for symptomatic relief in the acute presentation of a patient suffering from cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, often in the setting of a hospital emergency department. The syndrome was described by Allen and colleagues (2004) and Sontineni and colleagues (2009) who offer simplified diagnostic criteria. A subsequent, larger study reported a case series of 98 subjects with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome, confirming the earlier reported findings.

Map Box 1