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  • Treble (sound)


    Treble refers to tones whose frequency or range is at the higher end of human hearing. In music this corresponds to "high notes". The treble clef is often used to notate such notes. Examples of treble sounds are soprano voices, flute tones, piccolos, etc. Treble means the highest part in a composition that has three parts which came from the Latin triplus. It is characterized by a very high pitched sound or tone and is the higher part in a recording. They have frequencies from 2048 – 16384 Hz (C7–C10). Treble sound is the counterpart to bass sound. The term "treble" derives from the Latin triplum, used in 13th century motets to indicate the third and highest range. The treble control is used in sound reproduction to change the volume of treble notes relative to those of the middle and bass frequency ranges.

  • Ringing out


    Ringing out is a process in audio engineering used to prevent audio feedback between on-stage microphones and loudspeakers, and to maximize volume before feedback occurs. Depending on the acoustics of a venue, certain frequencies may be resonant, and will be more prone to feedback. To ring out a room, a sound technician will raise the gain or fader controls on a mixing desk to induce an audio system to feedback. Once feedback occurs, the technician uses an equalizer, usually a graphic equalizer to reduce the gain on the appropriate band (or frequency). The frequency of the feedback can be identified using a spectrum analyzer. This is repeated until feedback is sufficiently reduced without compromising the quality of the sound. Ringing out is particularly important when mixing monitors, or foldback. As the performer or musician is usually behind the main PA system, the monitors are so they can hear themselves. As such, a microphone is much more likely to feedback through the monitor loudspeakers than the main PA. Ringing out can become quite complex when working with a large number of microphones and monitors. Indeed, with larger touring acts, one of the major advantages of the rise in use of in-ear monitors is the minimal ringing out that needs to be done. Hardware exists that can perform many of the same functions that ringing out provides, such as feedback suppression and room optimization.

  • Auto-Tune


    Antares Vocal Processor AVP-1 (middle)Auto-Tune is an audio processor created by Antares Audio Technologies which uses a proprietary device to measure and alter pitch in vocal and instrumental music recording and performances. It was originally intended to disguise or correct off-key inaccuracies, allowing vocal tracks to be perfectly tuned despite originally being slightly off-pitch. Starting with Cher's 1998 hit "Believe", producers began to use Auto-Tune as a sound effect, to deliberately distort vocals. By 2018, music critic Simon Reynolds observed that Auto-Tune had "revolutionized popular music", calling its use for effects "the fad that just wouldn’t fade. Its use is now more entrenched than ever." The term auto-tune has become a generic term to describe audible pitch correction in music regardless of the method. The effect is not to be confused with a vocoder or the talk box.

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